Endocrine System Review

Rachel Rivera
Quiz by Rachel Rivera, updated more than 1 year ago
Rachel Rivera
Created by Rachel Rivera over 1 year ago
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Description

Review of Endocrine System

Resource summary

Question 1

Question
Which organ is considered a "neuroendocrine" organ? [blank_start]hypothalamus[blank_end]
Answer
  • hypothalamus

Question 2

Question
Which organ system works with the endocrine system to control or regulate body function? [blank_start]nervous system[blank_end]
Answer
  • nervous system

Question 3

Question
The endocrine system controls, regulates, and maintains [blank_start]homeostasis[blank_end]
Answer
  • homeostasis

Question 4

Question
What glands have both exocrine and endocrine functions? [blank_start]pancreas[blank_end], [blank_start]gonads[blank_end], [blank_start]placenta[blank_end]
Answer
  • pancreas
  • gonads
  • placenta

Question 5

Question
[blank_start]Hormones[blank_end] - travel in blood or lymph over long distances [blank_start]Autocrines[blank_end] - exert effects on same cells that secrete them [blank_start]Paracrines[blank_end] - affect local cells but not those that secrete them
Answer
  • Hormones
  • Autocrines
  • Paracrines

Question 6

Question
Autocrines and Paracrines are considered part of the endocrine system
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 7

Question
What are the three types of chemical messengers? [blank_start]hormones[blank_end], [blank_start]autocrines[blank_end], [blank_start]paracrines[blank_end]
Answer
  • hormones
  • autocrines
  • paracrines

Question 8

Question
Which cells are affected by hormones?
Answer
  • organ cells
  • tissue cells
  • neural cells
  • target cells
  • muscle cells
  • all cells

Question 9

Question
What are the two main chemical classes of hormones? [blank_start]amino acid-based[blank_end] [blank_start]steroids[blank_end]
Answer
  • amino acid-based
  • steroids

Question 10

Question
What chemical class are most hormones?
Answer
  • amino acid-based
  • steroids

Question 11

Question
Steroids are synthesized from [blank_start]cholesterol[blank_end].
Answer
  • cholesterol

Question 12

Question
Gonadal (sex) hormones and Adrenocortical hormones are considered what chemical class? [blank_start]steroid[blank_end]
Answer
  • steroid

Question 13

Question
Hormones circulate through blood to all body cells, but only cells with [blank_start]receptors[blank_end] for a specific hormone will respond to that hormone.
Answer
  • receptors

Question 14

Question
The two mechanisms of hormone action are [blank_start]water[blank_end]-[blank_start]soluble[blank_end] hormones and [blank_start]lipid[blank_end]-[blank_start]soluble[blank_end] hormones.
Answer
  • water
  • soluble
  • lipid
  • soluble

Question 15

Question
All amino-acid based hormones except thyroid hormone are [blank_start]water-soluble hormones[blank_end].
Answer
  • water-soluble hormones
  • lipid-soluble hormones
  • autocrine hormones
  • paracrine hormones

Question 16

Question
Steroids and thyroid hormones are [blank_start]lipid-soluble hormones[blank_end].
Answer
  • lipid-soluble hormones
  • water-soluble hormones
  • paracrine hormones
  • autocrine hormones

Question 17

Question
Characterize the Nervous System vs. Endocrine System: messenger: [blank_start]electrochemical impulses[blank_end] vs. [blank_start]chemical messengers[blank_end] response time: [blank_start]quick[blank_end] vs. [blank_start]slow[blank_end] duration of response: [blank_start]short[blank_end] vs. [blank_start]long[blank_end] target location: [blank_start]local[blank_end] vs. [blank_start]distant[blank_end]
Answer
  • electrochemical impulses
  • chemical messengers
  • chemical messengers
  • electrochemical impulses
  • quick
  • slow
  • slow
  • quick
  • short
  • long
  • long
  • short
  • local
  • distant
  • distant
  • local

Question 18

Question
Synthesis/release of most hormones is controlled by [blank_start]negative[blank_end] feedback mechanism.
Answer
  • negative

Question 19

Question
Amino acid hormones (except thyroid hormones) bind to [blank_start]receptors[blank_end] in the plasma membrane and then act via intracellular [blank_start]second[blank_end] messengers. This is called the [blank_start]Cyclic[blank_end] [blank_start]AMP[blank_end] [blank_start]signaling[blank_end] mechanism.
Answer
  • receptors
  • second
  • Cyclic
  • AMP
  • signaling

Question 20

Question
Cyclic AMP signaling mechanism steps 1. [blank_start]Hormone binds to membr. receptor[blank_end] 2. [blank_start]Recptr binds & actv G protein @ cell mem[blank_end] 3. [blank_start]G protein actv. adenylate cyclase[blank_end] 4. [blank_start]Adenylate cyclase conv ATP to cyclic AMP[blank_end] 5. [blank_start]cAMP activates protein kinases[blank_end] 6. [blank_start]Protein kinases phosphorylate proteins[blank_end]
Answer
  • Hormone binds to membr. receptor
  • Recptr binds & actv G protein @ cell mem
  • G protein actv. adenylate cyclase
  • Adenylate cyclase conv ATP to cyclic AMP
  • cAMP activates protein kinases
  • Protein kinases phosphorylate proteins

Question 21

Question
The Cyclic AMP signaling mechanism has a [blank_start]hormone[blank_end] first messenger and a [blank_start]cAMP[blank_end] second messenger.
Answer
  • hormone
  • cAMP

Question 22

Question
The cyclic AMP signaling mechanism starts with a [blank_start]hormone[blank_end] (first messenger) binding to a [blank_start]membrane[blank_end] receptor. The receptor binds and activates [blank_start]G protein[blank_end] at the cell [blank_start]membrane[blank_end]. This activates [blank_start]adenylate cyclase[blank_end] (enzyme), which converts ATP to [blank_start]cyclic AMP[blank_end] (second messenger). The second messenger activates [blank_start]protein kinases[blank_end] which then [blank_start]phosphorylate[blank_end] proteins.
Answer
  • hormone
  • membrane
  • G protein
  • membrane
  • adenylate cyclase
  • cyclic AMP
  • protein kinases
  • phosphorylate

Question 23

Question
In the cyclic AMP signaling mechanism, each adenylate cyclase generates [blank_start]many[blank_end] cAMP molecules which then activates protein kinases which phosphorylates [blank_start]many[blank_end] proteins triggering a [blank_start]cascade[blank_end] of chemical reactions called the [blank_start]amplification[blank_end] effect.
Answer
  • many
  • many
  • cascade
  • amplification

Question 24

Question
Action of cAMP is brief because it is rapidly degraded by enzyme [blank_start]phosphodiesterase[blank_end].
Answer
  • phosphodiesterase

Question 25

Question
It is OK for cAMP to be broken down because of the [blank_start]amplification effect[blank_end].
Answer
  • amplification effect

Question 26

Question
Intracellular receptors and direct gene activation steps: 1. [blank_start]Diffuse into target cells[blank_end] 2. [blank_start]bind to and actv. intracellular receptor[blank_end] 3. [blank_start]Recp-horm complex enters nucleus[blank_end] & [blank_start]binds to specific region of DNA[blank_end] 4. [blank_start]Binding to DNA "turns on" a gene[blank_end] [blank_start]initiates transcription of DNA to mRNA[blank_end] 5. [blank_start]mRNA exits nucleus & binds to ribosomes[blank_end] 6. [blank_start]mRNA is translated[blank_end] [blank_start]directs protein synthesis on ribosomes[blank_end]
Answer
  • Diffuse into target cells
  • bind to and actv. intracellular receptor
  • Recp-horm complex enters nucleus
  • binds to specific region of DNA
  • Binding to DNA "turns on" a gene
  • initiates transcription of DNA to mRNA
  • mRNA exits nucleus & binds to ribosomes
  • mRNA is translated
  • directs protein synthesis on ribosomes

Question 27

Question
[blank_start]Thyroxin[blank_end] receptors are found on nearly all cells of body and the hormone is the main regulator of cellular [blank_start]metabolism[blank_end].
Answer
  • Thyroxin
  • metabolism

Question 28

Question
Target cell activation depends on the three factors: 1. [blank_start]blood levels[blank_end] of hormone 2. [blank_start]number of receptors[blank_end] on or in the target cell 3. [blank_start]affinity of binding[blank_end] between the hormone and receptor
Answer
  • blood levels
  • number of receptors
  • affinity of binding

Question 29

Question
The three types of stimuli that trigger hormone release are: 1. [blank_start]humoral[blank_end] 2. [blank_start]neural[blank_end] 3. [blank_start]hormonal[blank_end]
Answer
  • humoral
  • neural
  • hormonal

Question 30

Question
What is the stimuli? [blank_start]neural[blank_end] - nervous system fibers stimulate adrenal medulla to secrete catecholamines in response to stress [blank_start]humoral[blank_end] - Blood Ca2+ monitored by parathyroid gland (releases PTH when levels are low) [blank_start]hormonal[blank_end] - hypothalamus hormones stimulate release of most anterior pituitary hormones which then stimulate other endocrine glands to release their hormones
Answer
  • neural
  • humoral
  • hormonal

Question 31

Question
What is the cycle which inhibits the release of anterior pituitary hormones due to increasing levels of hormones from the final target organs? [blank_start]hypothalamic[blank_end]-[blank_start]pituitary[blank_end]-[blank_start]target[blank_end] [blank_start]endocrine[blank_end] [blank_start]organ[blank_end] [blank_start]feedback[blank_end] [blank_start]loop[blank_end]
Answer
  • hypothalamic
  • pituitary
  • target
  • endocrine
  • organ
  • feedback
  • loop

Question 32

Question
[blank_start]Nervous system[blank_end] can override normal endocrine controls and thus maintain [blank_start]homeostasis[blank_end].
Answer
  • Nervous system
  • homeostasis

Question 33

Question
The nervous system will override normal endocrine controls when under [blank_start]severe stress[blank_end]. The [blank_start]hypothalamus[blank_end] and [blank_start]sympathetic[blank_end] nervous system are activated to override insulin control of blood glucose levels. Blood glucose levels rise to be used if needed during fight-or-flight.
Answer
  • severe stress
  • hypothalamus
  • sympathetic

Question 34

Question
Most hormones circulate in the blood as:
Answer
  • free
  • bound to protein carrier

Question 35

Question
Which hormones circulate bound to a protein carrier?
Answer
  • amino-acid based except thyroid
  • steroids and thyroid hormone

Question 36

Question
Concentration of circulating hormone reflects the rate of release of the hormone and speed of inactivation and removal from the body.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 37

Question
After hormones have exerted their effects, most hormones are removed from the blood and broken down by the [blank_start]kidneys[blank_end] and [blank_start]liver[blank_end]. The resulting breakdown products are excreted in the [blank_start]urine[blank_end] and [blank_start]feces[blank_end].
Answer
  • kidneys
  • liver
  • urine
  • feces

Question 38

Question
Only one hormone may act on the same target cell at the same time.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 39

Question
What are the three types of hormone interaction? 1. [blank_start]permissiveness[blank_end] 2. [blank_start]synergism[blank_end] 3. [blank_start]antagonism[blank_end]
Answer
  • permissiveness
  • synergism
  • antagonism

Question 40

Question
Characterize the following examples: Glucagon from pancreas and epinephrine from adrenal glands cause liver to release glucose to bloodstream - [blank_start]synergism[blank_end] Thyroid hormone is necessary for normal development of reproductive structures - [blank_start]permissiveness[blank_end] insulin lower blood glucose levels while glucagon raises blood glucose levels - [blank_start]antagonism[blank_end]
Answer
  • synergism
  • permissiveness
  • antagonism

Question 41

Question
The pituitary gland (hypophysis) is connected to the hypothalamus by the [blank_start]infundibulum[blank_end].
Answer
  • infundibulum

Question 42

Question
The posterior pituitary lobe is made of [blank_start]neural[blank_end] tissue containing cells called [blank_start]pituicytes[blank_end]. The anterior pituitary lobe is made of [blank_start]glandular[blank_end] tissue which is a type of [blank_start]epithelial[blank_end] tissue. The tissue contains [blank_start]basophil[blank_end] cells which produce the tropic hormones and [blank_start]acidophil[blank_end] cells which produce non-tropic hormones.
Answer
  • pituicytes
  • neural
  • glandular
  • epithelial
  • basophil
  • acidophil

Question 43

Question
The pituitary gland is located in the [blank_start]hypophyseal[blank_end] [blank_start]fossa[blank_end] of the [blank_start]sella[blank_end] [blank_start]turcica[blank_end] of the sphenoid bone.
Answer
  • hypophyseal
  • fossa
  • sella
  • turcica

Question 44

Question
The posterior pituitary is considered a true endocrine gland
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 45

Question
The posterior pituitary lobe connects to the hypothalamus via the [blank_start]hypothalamic[blank_end]-[blank_start]hypophyseal[blank_end] [blank_start]tract[blank_end].
Answer
  • hypothalamic
  • hypophyseal
  • tract

Question 46

Question
Steps to release hormones from posterior pituitary: The hypothalamic [blank_start]neurons[blank_end] synthesize [blank_start]neurohormones[blank_end]. They are transported down the [blank_start]axons[blank_end] of the [blank_start]hypothalamic[blank_end]-[blank_start]hypophyseal[blank_end] tract to the posterior pituitary and stored in the [blank_start]axon terminals[blank_end]. In response to hypothalamic neurons firing, [blank_start]action potentials[blank_end] arriving at the posterior pituitary cause the release of the [blank_start]neurohormones[blank_end].
Answer
  • neurons
  • neurohormones
  • axons
  • hypothalamic
  • hypophyseal
  • axon terminals
  • action potentials
  • neurohormones

Question 47

Question
The two neurohormones released by the posterior pituitary are [blank_start]oxytocin[blank_end] and [blank_start]antidiuretic hormone[blank_end] which are [blank_start]amino acid-based[blank_end] hormones.
Answer
  • oxytocin
  • antidiuretic hormone
  • amino acid-based

Question 48

Question
The anterior pituitary lobe is connect to the hypothalamus which is a [blank_start]vascular[blank_end] connection called the [blank_start]hypophyseal[blank_end] [blank_start]portal[blank_end] [blank_start]system[blank_end].
Answer
  • vascular
  • hypophyseal
  • portal
  • system

Question 49

Question
The hypophyseal portal system consists of a [blank_start]primary capillary plexus[blank_end] located in the [blank_start]infundibulum[blank_end], [blank_start]hypohyseal portal veins[blank_end], and a [blank_start]secondary capillary plexus[blank_end] located in the [blank_start]anterior pituitary lobe[blank_end].
Answer
  • primary capillary plexus
  • infundibulum
  • hypohyseal portal veins
  • secondary capillary plexus
  • anterior pituitary lobe

Question 50

Question
Which gland do the the 6 tropic hormones released from the hypothalamus stimulate? [blank_start]anterior pituitary gland[blank_end]
Answer
  • anterior pituitary gland

Question 51

Question
[blank_start]Osmoreceptors[blank_end] in hypothalamus monitor blood solute (and water) concentration. When there is too much concentrate posterior pituitary secretes [blank_start]ADH[blank_end] (abbreviation) into blood.
Answer
  • Osmoreceptors
  • ADH

Question 52

Question
Gigantism occurs due to excessive [blank_start]GH[blank_end] (abr) targeting active [blank_start]epiphyseal[blank_end] [blank_start]plates[blank_end] before they close.
Answer
  • GH
  • epiphyseal
  • plates

Question 53

Question
Acromegaly is due to an abundance of [blank_start]GH[blank_end] (abr.) and is often caused due to an [blank_start]anterior[blank_end] pituitary [blank_start]tumor[blank_end]. Affects only the [blank_start]hands[blank_end], [blank_start]feet[blank_end], and [blank_start]face[blank_end] due to ephiphyseal plates having already closed.
Answer
  • GH
  • anterior
  • tumor
  • hands
  • feet
  • face

Question 54

Question
The [blank_start]anterior pituitary[blank_end] was called the "master endocrine gland" because many of its hormones regulate activity of other endocrine glands.
Answer
  • anterior pituitary

Question 55

Question
What disease is indicated by increased urine output, intense thirst, and is premeditated by damage to the head? [blank_start]Diabetes insipidus[blank_end]
Answer
  • Diabetes insipidus

Question 56

Question
What syndrome is marked by retention of fluid, brain edema, headache, and disorientation especially following neurosurgery/general anesthesia, meningitis, hypothalamic injury, or lung cancer? [blank_start]Syndrome[blank_end] of [blank_start]inappropriate[blank_end] [blank_start]ADH[blank_end] [blank_start]secretion[blank_end]
Answer
  • Syndrome
  • inappropriate
  • ADH
  • secretion

Question 57

Question
When high concentrations of ADH are released during severe blood loss, blood pressure is [blank_start]raised[blank_end] and [blank_start]vasoconstriction[blank_end] occurs.
Answer
  • raised
  • vasoconstriction
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