Define the word hormone and distinguish a hormone from a neurotransmitter. Why is this an imperfect distinction?
Name some sources of hormones other than purely endocrine glands.
Describe some distinctions between endocrine and exocrine glands.
List some similarities and differences between the endocrine and nervous systems.
Discuss why the target cell concept is essential for understanding hormone function.
6. What are two good reasons for considering the pituitary to be two separate glands?.
7. Briefly contrast hypothalamic control of the anterior pituitary with its control of the posterior pituitary.
8.Name three anterior lobe hormones that have reproductive functions and three that have nonreproductive roles. What target organs are stimulated by each of these hormones?
9. In what sense does the pituitary “take orders” from the target organs under its command?
10. How does the liver promote GH function? How does GH affect the metabolism of proteins, fats, and carbohydrates?
11. Identify three endocrine glands that are larger or more functional in infants or children than in adults. What is the term for the shrinkage of a gland with age?
12. What is the value of the calorigenic effect of thyroid hormone?
13. Name a glucocorticoid, a mineralocorticoid, and a catecholamine secreted by the adrenal gland.
14. Does the action of glucocorticoids more closely resemble that of glucagon or insulin? Explain.
15. Define hypoglycemic and hyperglycemic hormone and give an example of each.
16. What is the difference between a gonadal hormone and a gonadotropin?
17. What are the three chemical classes of hormones? Name at least one hormone in each class.
18. Why do corticosteroids and thyroid hormones require transport proteins to travel in the bloodstream?
19. Explain how MIT, DIT, T3, and T4 relate to each other structurally.
20. Where are hormone receptors located in target cells? Name one hormone that employs each receptor location.
21. Explain how one hormone molecule can activate millions of enzyme molecules.
22. Define stress from the standpoint of endocrinology.
23. Describe the stages of the general adaptation syndrome.
24. List six hormones that show increased secretion in the stress response. Describe how each one contributes to recovery from stress.
25. What are eicosanoids and how do they differ from neurotransmitters and hormones?
26. Distinguish between a paracrine and endocrine effect.
27. State four functions of prostaglandins.
28. Explain some causes of hormone hyposecretion, and give examples. Do the same for hypersecretion.
29. In diabetes mellitus, explain the chain of events that leads to (a) osmotic diuresis, (b) ketoacidosis and coma, and (c) gangrene of the lower limbs.