Endocrine System

Riki M
Flashcards by Riki M, updated more than 1 year ago
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Focusing on glucose homeostasis

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Question Answer
Who discovered Insulin? Frederick Grant Banting & John James Rickard. They isolated and injected insulin into an individual suffering from diabetes.
Which endocrine gland makes insulin? The Pancreas which is proximal to the small intestines.
What does the pancreas contain? Alpha cells, that produce glucagon and Beta cells which produce insulin. These cells form clusters known as islets.
What is the role of Insulin? Accelerates glucose uptake and glycogen formation in the liver and muscle cells. Generates ATP.
Explain the course that insulin takes High blood glucose concentration is absorbed by the small intestine, signalling the pancreas to release insulin into the blood stream. This stimulates the uptake of glucose from the blood to target tissues and the insulin stimulus stops.
How does glucose move into the cell? Glucose is water soluble and therefore must enter the cell through glucose transporters (GLUT).
Explain the process of glucose transporters Vesicles containing GLUT-4, inside the cell, move to fuse with the membrane, opening facilitated channels and allowing glucose to flow in.
What causes diabetes? When the body cannot produce any or enough insulin, causing glucose to accumulate in the blood.
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