Chapter 16 Sex, Gender, and Personality

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Quiz by misslauren5689, updated more than 1 year ago
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Created by misslauren5689 over 6 years ago
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Personality Pysch @ Rutgers

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Question 1

Question
A person who is androgynous scores
Answer
  • low on both masculinity and femininity.
  • high on both masculinity and femininity.
  • high on masculinity and low femininity.
  • high on femininity and low on masculinity.

Question 2

Question
Which of the following MOST emphasizes physiological differences as causing sex differences?
Answer
  • Socialization theory
  • Social role theory
  • Evolutionary theory
  • Hormonal theory

Question 3

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Differences between men and women in terms of personality or behavior without regard to the causes of those differences are called
Answer
  • sex differences.
  • gender differences.
  • adaptive problems.
  • gender stereotypes.

Question 4

Question
The fact that men are, on average, taller than women is best described by the term
Answer
  • sex difference
  • gender difference
  • adaptive problem
  • gender stereotype

Question 5

Question
The social interpretation of what it means to be a man or a woman is referred to as
Answer
  • sex.
  • gender.
  • social learning theory.
  • gender stereotypes.

Question 6

Question
Beliefs about the ways emn and women differ, in contrast to actual differences, are called
Answer
  • sex differences.
  • gender differences.
  • adaptive problems.
  • gender stereotypes.

Question 7

Question
The idea that mean are not capable of being nurturing is an example of a(n)
Answer
  • adaptive problem.
  • gender stereotype.
  • gender difference.
  • sex difference.

Question 8

Question
Which of the following is NOT one of the reasons some individuals have argued that studying sex differences is a potentially dangerous course of study?
Answer
  • the findings may be used to support political agendas.
  • minimizing these differences may hamper the feminist agenda.
  • the findings may be used to support the status quo.
  • the findings may reflect gender stereotypes, rather than real differences.

Question 9

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Feminist psychologists like Alive Eagly argue that is impossiblee to ignore the study of sex differences since
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  • scientific and social change will be impossible without coming to terms with real sex differences between men & women.
  • science will show that the differences between men & women have been exaggerated and are minimal.
  • it is important to understand how gender stereotypes make men & women different from one another.
  • researchers need to be able to dismiss the role of sex differences in behavior to advance the feminist agenda.

Question 10

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The study of sex differences in psychology became popular in the
Answer
  • 1920s
  • 1950s
  • 1970s
  • 1990s

Question 11

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In an influential book, "The Psychology of Sex Differences," Eleanor Maccoby and Carol Jacklyn argued that
Answer
  • men were slightly better at verbal tasks.
  • men were more aggressive than woman.
  • men & women do not differ significantly in personality.
  • women were slightly better at object rotation tasks.

Question 12

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The statistical technique of _________________ summarizes findings from many different studies.
Answer
  • factor analysis
  • meta-analysis
  • gender analysis
  • qualitative analysis

Question 13

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An effect size of 0.51 would be considered ______________ between two groups.
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  • small
  • moderate
  • large
  • no difference

Question 14

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An effect size of -0.82 would be considered ___________ between two groups.
Answer
  • small
  • moderate
  • large
  • no difference

Question 15

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the "d" effect size statistic is interpreted as the
Answer
  • average difference in units of standard deviations.
  • standard deviation of the sample.
  • mean difference between samples.
  • difference score between two sample.

Question 16

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The findings that women score higher in verbal ability and that men score higher in math ability have effect sizes that are considered
Answer
  • small.
  • moderate.
  • large.
  • very large.

Question 17

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When we observe a sex difference where women score higher than man, we can conclude that
Answer
  • most women will score higher than most men.
  • some men will score higher than most women.
  • there is a difference between men's average score and women's average score.
  • the difference is due to the hormones.

Question 18

Question
When we examine average sex differences between men and women, regardless of the size of those differences, it is important to remember that
Answer
  • sex differences may have political implications that must be interpreted very carefully.
  • the implications of average sex differences does not necessarily apply to any particular individual.
  • researchers may upset someone by finding any particular sex difference between men and women.
  • there is generally little overlap between distributions of male and female scores for any particular characteristic.

Question 19

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_________________ views sex differences as small and inconsequential
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  • Social roles theory.
  • Socialization theory.
  • The minimalist position.
  • The maximalist position.

Question 20

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___________________ argues that the magnitude of sex differences is comparable to the magnitude of many other effects in psychology and should not be trivialized.
Answer
  • The antifeminist position.
  • The minimalist position.
  • The moderation position.
  • The maximalist position.

Question 21

Question
A proponent of social learning theory, Alice Eagly's views on the importance of sex difference are best characterized by the _____________________ view.
Answer
  • minimalist
  • undifferentiated.
  • maximalist
  • feminist

Question 22

Question
______________ is a facet of extraversion that has been shown to have the largest sex difference between men and women.
Answer
  • Gregariousness
  • Assertiveness
  • Activity
  • Talkativeness

Question 23

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Men commit about ______________________ percent of all homicides that are committed worldwide.
Answer
  • 60
  • 70
  • 80
  • 90

Question 24

Question
The finding that men interrupt conversations more frequently then women do is consistent with research on sex differences for which of the following facets of extraversion?
Answer
  • Acitivty
  • Trust
  • Assertiveness
  • Impulsiveness

Question 25

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Women tend to score higher than men on the _________________ facet of the agreeableness personality trait.
Answer
  • activity
  • good-natured
  • tender-mindedness
  • cooperative

Question 26

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People who score high on the tender-mindedness facet of the agreeableness in the 5 fact model of personality tend to
Answer
  • lack intelligence.
  • be nurturing and empathetic.
  • have a poor grasp of reality.
  • be psychologically fragile.

Question 27

Question
Men tend to score higher than women on personality measures of
Answer
  • aggressiveness.
  • warmth.
  • neuroticism.
  • conscientiousness.

Question 28

Question
Women tend to score higher than men on the ______________ facet of the conscientiousness personality trait.
Answer
  • order
  • self-discipline
  • responsible
  • scrupulous

Question 29

Question
Women tend to score higher than men on the ___________ facet of the emotional stability personality trait.
Answer
  • impulsivity
  • aggressiveness
  • anxiety
  • insecurity

Question 30

Question
Men & Women show the least differences on the personality trait of __________ of the five-factor model of personality.
Answer
  • extraversion
  • emotional stability
  • agreeableness
  • openness

Question 31

Question
Brebner's international study of the basic emotions found that women experience emotion ____________ than men.
Answer
  • less frequently and less intensely
  • more frequently and more intensely
  • less frequently and more intensely
  • more frequently and less intensely

Question 32

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A person's general self-evaluation is known as
Answer
  • global self-esteem.
  • domain-specific self-esteem.
  • self-esteem variability.
  • overall self concept.

Question 33

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Overall, sex differences in self-esteem have been found to be
Answer
  • small.
  • moderate.
  • large.
  • very large.

Question 34

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A problem for evolutionary theory is that
Answer
  • it does not address the origins of sex differences.
  • it does not explain that individual differences within the sexes.
  • research suggests that fathers prefer to spend time with daughters.
  • differences between short- and long-term mating strategies are too small.

Question 35

Question
Sex differences between men and women in terms of self-esteem
Answer
  • start occurring in childhood, continue increasing during adolescence, and increase steadily during adulthood.
  • are slight in childhood, peak during the teenage years, and steadily decrease during adulthood.
  • are not present in childhood, begin to occur in adolescence, and steadily decrease during adulthood.
  • are extremely large during childhood and decrease over the remainder of the life span.

Question 36

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One of the largest differences in sexuality between men and women is found in their interest in
Answer
  • sex.
  • casual sex.
  • specific sex acts.
  • safe sex.

Question 37

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Depressed women are more likely to __________________- than depressed men.
Answer
  • become socially withdrawn
  • act aggressively
  • seek treatment
  • commit suicide with a firearm

Question 38

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Research on sex differences in men and women in terms of depression
Answer
  • fails to find consistent differences.
  • finds that women tend to be more depressed than men.
  • finds that men tend to be more depressed than women.
  • finds that the depression differences are due to differences on the people-things dimension.

Question 39

Question
Sex differences in depression between men and women are observed
Answer
  • across the life span.
  • only in childhood.
  • mostly in adolescence and adulthood.
  • mostly in old age.

Question 40

Question
Approximately __________________ percent of adult women and __________ percent of adult men will have at least one episode of depression during their lives.
Answer
  • 15; 5
  • 30; 20
  • 25; 10
  • 20; 20

Question 41

Question
Some researchers speculate that _____________ explains gender differences between men and women for depression.
Answer
  • hormones
  • genetic susceptibility
  • rumination
  • differences on the trait of trust

Question 42

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If a person focuses repeatedly on his or her symptoms and the causes of that distress, the person may be involved in
Answer
  • rumination.
  • recidivism.
  • regression.
  • rehabilitation.

Question 43

Question
The greater rate of depression that women suffer as compared to men may be due to
Answer
  • increases in male happiness due an increased number of televised sports on cable television.
  • increasing body dissatisfaction occurring around the onset of puberty when the heterosexual.
  • greater levels of "hostile masculinity" by males around the onset of puberty when heterosexual interaction increases.
  • differences in brain structure between women and men that physiologically predisposes women to ruminate.

Question 44

Question
Which is NOT predicted from Bleske and Buss's study of opposite sex friendships?
Answer
  • Men are more likely to than women to initiate friendship with someone of the opposite sex because they are sexually attracted to them.
  • Men are more likely to have female friends that closely match their personality characteristics.
  • Men are more likely to dissolve friendships with women when they do not result in sex.
  • Men are more likely to become sexually attracted their female friends.

Question 45

Question
The idea that women view close relationships as a more central part of their identity is
Answer
  • consistent with the feminine mystique stereotype.
  • supported by research on the people-things dimension.
  • most related to differences in self-esteem.
  • related to sex differences in the agreeableness personality trait.

Question 46

Question
Fraternal twins Jack and Jill have been raised in the same environment. Jill aspires to become a clinical psychologist while Jack intends to be a mechanical engineer. Their career choices most likely are due to sex differences that are expressed by their scores on the ____________ dimension of personality.
Answer
  • people--things
  • openness to experience.
  • Machiavellianism.
  • need for achievement.

Question 47

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If we think of masculinity-femininity as a single-bipolar dimension
Answer
  • a person can be both masculine and feminine.
  • a person cannot score high on both masculinity and femininity.
  • a person must be more masculine or more feminine.
  • we must assume hormonal origins of these traits.

Question 48

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The _____________ dimension contains items related to assertiveness, dominance, and instrumentality.
Answer
  • people-things
  • sociosexuality
  • masculinity
  • femininity

Question 49

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The ______________ dimension contains items related to nurturance, empathy, and emotional expression.
Answer
  • people-things
  • sociosexuality
  • masculinity
  • femininity

Question 50

Question
Pat has a garage full of tools; loves to throw big dinner parties for friends; is very assertive at work; and likes to be self-sufficient. One often finds Pat working on his own or friends' cars. He will spend hours listening to friends' problems or nurturing students he tutors after work. Pat most likely scores toward the _____________ end of the Bem sex role inventory.
Answer
  • undifferentiated
  • androgyny
  • masculinity
  • femininity

Question 51

Question
Two-dimensional measures of gender have been criticized because
Answer
  • it is impossible to establish validity for 2 dimensions of personality simultaneously.
  • recent research suggests that masculinity--femininity is a single dimension.
  • there are so few androgynous people.
  • there are too many undifferentiated people.

Question 52

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Psychologist Janet Spence now views her measure of sex roles as more of a measure of
Answer
  • instrumentality and expressiveness.
  • people versus things.
  • gender stereotypes.
  • androgyny.

Question 53

Question
_______ refers to the traits involved with getting tasks completed in a direct, independent fashion, being self-sufficient, and working with others.
Answer
  • Tender-mindedness
  • Gender schema
  • Expressiveness
  • Instrumentality

Question 54

Question
Showing emotions, empathy, and nurturance is associated with the trait of
Answer
  • expressiveness.
  • instrumentality.
  • global self-esteem.
  • rumination.

Question 55

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The cognitive orientations that lead people to process info on the basis of sex-linked associations are known as
Answer
  • gender stereotypes.
  • gender schemata.
  • sex differences.
  • masculinity-femininity

Question 56

Question
Researchers who used to view androgyny as ideal now consider ______________, that is, not to use gender and sex-linkage at all in one's processing of social information, as best.
Answer
  • undifferentiated gender.
  • masculinity
  • femininity
  • gender-aschematic thinking

Question 57

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Thinking of men as either "dads" or "cads" is an example of
Answer
  • sex differences.
  • gender differences.
  • social categories.
  • social learning theory.

Question 58

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Which of the following is NOT a component of gender stereotypes?
Answer
  • Cognitive.
  • Affective.
  • Behavioral.
  • Perceptual.

Question 59

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Gender-based discrimination is an example of the __________________ component of gender stereotypes.
Answer
  • ccognitive
  • affective
  • behavioral
  • perceptual

Question 60

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Research on gender stereotypes:
Answer
  • consistently finds that men are seen as more instrumental.
  • consistently finds that men are seen as less instrumental.
  • consistently finds that men and women are seen as equally instrumental.
  • finds that they differ too much across cultures to make generalizations.
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