Microorganisms MCQ's 2013 Answered

tj.sloan
Quiz by tj.sloan, updated more than 1 year ago
tj.sloan
Created by tj.sloan almost 6 years ago
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Papers covered; August 2013 May 2013

Resource summary

Question 1

Question
The cardinal temperatures are the:
Answer
  • Minimum temperatures
  • Optimum temperatures
  • Maximum temperatures
  • Minimum, optimum, and maximum temperatures taken together.

Question 2

Question
Carl Woese of the University of Illinois and his collaborators identified two major branches of prokaryotic evolution. What was the basis for dividing prokaryotes into two domains?
Answer
  • Microscopic examination of the staining characteristics of the cell wall.
  • Metabolic characteristics such as the production of methane gas
  • Ecological characteristics such as the ability to survive extreme temperatures
  • Molecular characteristics such as ribosomal RNA sequences

Question 3

Question
Which prokaryotes should be expected to be most strongly resistant to plasmolysis in hypertonic environments?
Answer
  • extreme halophiles
  • extreme thermophiles.
  • methanogens
  • nitrogen-fixing bacteria that live in root nodules

Question 4

Question
Photoautotophs use:
Answer
  • Light as an energy source and CO2 as a carbon source
  • Light as an energy and methane as a carbon source
  • CO2 as both an energy source and a carbon source
  • All of the above.

Question 5

Question
Addition of blood to a culture medium only allows the haemolytic bacteria that grow on the plate to be picked out. This is an example of a:
Answer
  • Selective medium
  • Differential medium
  • Complex medium
  • Synthetic medium

Question 6

Question
Almost all medically important microbes are:
Answer
  • Chemolithoautotrophs
  • Photoorganoheterotrophs
  • Photolithoautotrophs
  • Chemoorganoheterotrophs

Question 7

Question
With regards to bacterial plasmids which statement is the CORRECT one?
Answer
  • A plasmid is extra chromosomal DNA that encodes only resistance to antibiotics
  • A plasmid is a part of the bacterial chromosome
  • A plasmid is single stranded DNA found in some bacteria
  • A plasmid is an extra chromosomal DNA molecule

Question 8

Question
Bacterial Genomics is:
Answer
  • A study of the entire bacterial genome
  • Sequencing of the bacterial chromosome
  • A study of essential genes and genetic elements
  • Sequencing of DNA samples obtained from the environment

Question 9

Question
All viruses:
Answer
  • Enter cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis
  • Replicate their genomes in the nucleus of the cell
  • Replicate their genomes in the cytoplasm of the cell
  • Surround their progeny genomes with capsid proteins inside infected cells

Question 10

Question
Underline the TRUE statement below:
Answer
  • Viruses do not infect microorganisms
  • All viruses are enveloped
  • All viruses cause disease
  • All viruses are parasites

Question 11

Question
Anthrophilic dermatophytes (fungi causing cutaneous infections of humans) are primarily associated with:
Answer
  • Soil
  • Animals
  • Plants
  • Humans

Question 12

Question
Phytophthora ramorum is the causal pathogen of:
Answer
  • Potato blight
  • Sudden Oak Death
  • Coffee rust
  • Ash dieback

Question 13

Question
The Bacille-Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine is:
Answer
  • Heat-killed Mycobacterium tuberculosis
  • Attenuated live Mycobacterium tuberculosis
  • Mycobacterium bovis
  • Attenuated live Mycobacterium bovis

Question 14

Question
Which of the following is transmitted via the faecal-oral-route?
Answer
  • Malaria
  • Typhoid
  • Plague
  • Meningitis

Question 15

Question
With regard to the differences between bacterial and eukaryotic cells which statement is the CORRECT one?
Answer
  • Bacterial cells do not contain mitochondria.
  • Bacterial cells are always larger than eukaryote cells.
  • Bacteria do not contain a chromosome.
  • Eukaryotic cells are sensitive to β-lactam antibiotics.

Question 16

Question
Koch’s postulates MOST CORRECTLY relate to which one of the following statements?
Answer
  • The isolation of a bacterium in culture from an infection alone indicates that it caused the disease.
  • Isolation and cultivation of a microorganism from a diseased animal, then inoculation into another healthy animal to cause the same disease followed by re-isolation of the same microorganism indicates that it is the cause of the disease.
  • The observation of virus particles in tissue from a human with disease indicates that it has caused the disease.
  • Inoculation of a bacterium into an animal and observation of disease alone indicates that it is the cause of the disease observed.

Question 17

Question
Which statement is CORRECT with respect to Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)?
Answer
  • LPS is found in Gram positive cells.
  • LPS is found in Gram negative cells in the cytoplasmic membrane.
  • LPS is found in the outer-membrane of Gram negative cells.
  • LPS is associated with found inside all bacterial cells.

Question 18

Question
A culture of E.coli is diluted by a factor of 10-6 and, after plating out 100 μl on an agar plate, 57 colonies grew after incubation at 37oC overnight. The original culture therefore contained how many viable E. coli cells per ml?
Answer
  • 5.7 x 10(7)
  • 5.7 x 10(8)
  • 5.7 x 10(6)
  • 5.7 x 10(5)

Question 19

Question
With respect to differences between members of the archaeal and bacterial domains/kingdoms, which is the CORRECT statement?
Answer
  • Both have peptidoglycan in their cell walls
  • No bacteria and only some Archaea are capable of methanogenesis
  • Archaea and bacteria are sensitive to β-lactam antibiotics
  • Bacteria have similar RNA polymerase to that of Archaea

Question 20

Question
Which statement is CORRECT with respect to peptidoglycan?
Answer
  • There are multiple molecules of peptidoglycan in bacterial cell walls.
  • Only Gram positive cells possess peptidoglycan.
  • There is only a single molecule of peptidoglycan in a bacterial cell wall.
  • Peptidoglycan is only found in Gram negative cell walls.

Question 21

Question
Which of the following is a macronutrient?
Answer
  • Manganese
  • Magnesium
  • Zinc
  • Cobalt

Question 22

Question
Which of the following forms of oxygen are generally toxic to living organisms?
Answer
  • Superoxide anion
  • Hydrogen peroxide
  • Hydroxyl radical
  • All of the above

Question 23

Question
Carrier mediated transport is necessary when:
Answer
  • Diffusion will not allow adequate amounts of a substance to enter the cell
  • Movement into the cell is against a concentration gradient
  • The level of nutrients in nature is very low
  • All of the above

Question 24

Question
The size (as determined by the sedimentation factor) of the most useful RNA molecule for prokaryotic evolutionary studies is:
Answer
  • 5S
  • 16S
  • 18S
  • 23S

Question 25

Question
Which of these environmental factors influences microbial growth?
Answer
  • pH
  • Water potential
  • Oxygen
  • All of the above

Question 26

Question
The signature sequence is used extensively in the:
Answer
  • Phylogenetic probe
  • Reclassification of misclassified organisms
  • Defining of a specific group within a domain
  • All of the above

Question 27

Question
A Wild-type strain is:
Answer
  • A bacterial or viral strain with minimum of mutations in its genome
  • An arbitrarily chosen strain; other strains compared with it
  • A strain adapted to laboratory conditions
  • A strain that dominates the natural environment

Question 28

Question
Bacterial genes:
Answer
  • Are stretches of double stranded RNA
  • Have introns
  • Are often organised into operons
  • Are always present in two copies

Question 29

Question
Viruses may encode their genomes as:
Answer
  • DNA
  • RNA
  • Negative strand RNA
  • All of the above

Question 30

Question
Poliovirus:
Answer
  • Has a double-stranded DNA genome
  • Has a capsid that is composed of 240 copies of a single protein
  • Replicates primarily in the upper respiratory tract
  • Belongs to the enterovirus genus of the picornavirus family

Question 31

Question
Which of the following statements is NOT true about rust fungi?
Answer
  • They are obligate pathogens
  • They are host specific pathogens
  • They have an active saprophytic phase
  • They form basidiospores as part of their life cycle

Question 32

Question
Which of the following is NOT part of the plant disease triangle:
Answer
  • Susceptible host
  • Climate change
  • Active pathogen
  • Suitable environment

Question 33

Question
Which of the following is primarily a respiratory pathogen?
Answer
  • Vibrio cholera
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis
  • Salmonella typhi
  • Mycobacterium leprae

Question 34

Question
Modification of RNA polymerase confers bacterial resistance to:
Answer
  • Beta-lactam antibiotics
  • Rifampicin
  • Quinolone antibiotics
  • Metronidazole

Question 35

Question
Pasteur is attributed with which one of the following discoveries?
Answer
  • Was the first to see microorganisms under a microscope
  • First to discover and use agar
  • That there could be life without air
  • The first chemical antibiotics

Question 36

Question
The length of a typical E.coli cell is approximately:
Answer
  • 20 μm
  • 2 μm
  • 200 nm
  • 20 nm

Question 37

Question
With respect to differences between members of the archaeal and bacterial domains/kingdoms, which is the CORRECT statement?
Answer
  • Both have peptidoglycan in their cell walls
  • No bacteria and only some Archaea are capable of methanogenesis
  • Archaea and bacteria are sensitive to β-lactam antibiotics
  • Bacteria have similar RNA polymerase to that of Archaea

Question 38

Question
Which statement is CORRECT with respect to the E.coli chromosome?
Answer
  • It is negatively supercoiled
  • It is positively supercoiled
  • There are typically several origins of replication
  • It consists of over 50 million base pairs

Question 39

Question
A culture of E.coli is diluted by a factor of 10-6 and, after plating out 100 μl on an agar plate, 56 colonies grew after incubation at 37oC overnight. The original culture therefore contained how many viable E. coli cells per ml?
Answer
  • 5.6 x 10(7)
  • 5.6 x 10(8)
  • 5.6 x 10(6)
  • 5.6 x 10(5)

Question 40

Question
Bacterial flagella bring about cell motion by which mechanism?
Answer
  • Wave-like movement of the flagellum
  • Rotation of the cell
  • Rotation of the flagellum in one direction only
  • Rotation of the flagellum that is reversible
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