Microorganisms MCQ's 2011

tj.sloan
Quiz by tj.sloan, updated more than 1 year ago
tj.sloan
Created by tj.sloan almost 6 years ago
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Description

Papers covered; August 2011 May 2011

Resource summary

Question 1

Question
Modes of obtaining nutrition, used by at least some bacteria, include all of the following EXCEPT:
Answer
  • Chemolithoautrophy
  • Photolithoautrophy
  • Chemoheteroautrophy
  • Chemoorganoheterotrophy

Question 2

Question
Which of the following forms of oxygen are generally toxic to living organisms?
Answer
  • Superoxide anion
  • Hydrogen peroxide
  • Hydroxyl radical
  • All of the above

Question 3

Question
Carrier mediated transport is necessary when:
Answer
  • Diffusion will not allow adequate amounts of a substance to enter the cell
  • Movement into the cell is against a concentration gradient
  • The level of nutrients in nature is very low
  • All of the above

Question 4

Question
The size (as determined by the sedimentation factor) of the most useful RNA molecule for prokaryotic evolutionary studies is:
Answer
  • 5S
  • 16S
  • 18S
  • 23S

Question 5

Question
Which of these environmental factors influence microbial growth?
Answer
  • pH
  • Water potential
  • Oxygen
  • All of the above

Question 6

Question
The signature sequence is used extensively in the:
Answer
  • Phylogenetic probe
  • Reclassification of misclassified organisms
  • Defining of a specific group within a domain
  • All of the above

Question 7

Question
With regards to the bacterial genome which statement is the correct one?
Answer
  • Bacterial genome is triploid
  • Bacterial genome is mostly haploid
  • Bacterial genome is mostly diploid
  • Bacterial genome is haploid

Question 8

Question
With regards to bacterial plasmids which statement is the correct one?
Answer
  • A plasmid is a regulatory gene
  • A plasmid is a short RNA molecule
  • A plasmid is an extra chromosomal DNA molecule
  • A plasmid is a non coding region found in some bacterial genomes

Question 9

Question
All viruses:
Answer
  • Have a genome that is a single molecule of nucleic acid
  • Are enveloped
  • Encode more proteins in their genomes than those contained in the mature virus particle
  • Have capsids that are icosahedral in shape

Question 10

Question
Poliovirus:
Answer
  • Has a double-stranded DNA genome
  • Has a capsid that is composed of 240 copies of a single protein
  • Replicates primarily in the upper respiratory tract
  • Belongs to the enterovirus genus of the picornavirus family

Question 11

Question
Which of the following is NOT an alternative name for cutaneous fungal infections of humans:
Answer
  • Superficial mycoses
  • Dermatophytes
  • Mycetoma
  • Ringworms

Question 12

Question
Which of the following is NOT part of the plant disease triangle:
Answer
  • Susceptible host
  • Climate change
  • Active pathogen
  • Suitable environment

Question 13

Question
The Bacille-Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine is:
Answer
  • Heat-killed Mycobacterium tuberculosis
  • Attenuated live Mycobacterium tuberculosis
  • Mycobacterium bovis
  • Attenuated live Mycobacterium bovis

Question 14

Question
Which of the following is a bacterial infection?
Answer
  • Whooping cough
  • Polio
  • Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
  • Malaria

Question 15

Question
Pasteur is attributed with which one of the following discoveries?
Answer
  • Was the first to see microorganisms under a microscope
  • First to discover and use agar
  • That there could be life without air
  • The first chemical antibiotics

Question 16

Question
The length of a typical E. coli cell is approximately?
Answer
  • 20 μm
  • 2 μm
  • 200 nm
  • 20 nm

Question 17

Question
With respect to differences between members of the archaeal and bacterial domains/kingdoms, which is the correct statement?
Answer
  • Both have peptidoglycan in their cell walls
  • Only some Archaea are capable of methanogenesis
  • Archaea are sensitive to β-lactam antibiotics
  • Bacteria have similar RNA polymerase to that of Archaea

Question 18

Question
Which statement is correct with respect to the E.coli chromosome?
Answer
  • It is negatively supercoiled
  • It is positively supercoiled
  • There are typically several origins of replication
  • It consists of over 50 million base pairs

Question 19

Question
A culture of E. coli is diluted by a factor of 10-6 and, after plating out 100 μl on an agar plate, 93 colonies grew after incubation at 37oC overnight. The original culture therefore contained how many viable E. coli cells per ml?
Answer
  • 9.3 x 10(7)
  • 9.3 x 10(8)
  • 9.3 x 10(6)
  • 9.3 x 10(5)

Question 20

Question
Bacterial flagella bring about cell motion by which mechanism?
Answer
  • Wave-like movement of the flagellum
  • Rotation of the cell
  • Rotation of the flagellum in one direction only
  • Rotation of the flagellum that is reversible

Question 21

Question
In the Earth’s biosphere most fungal biomass and diversity is found:
Answer
  • In the oceans
  • In soils
  • Under glaciers
  • In the atmosphere

Question 22

Question
Fungal growth and cell division is NOT normally accompanied by:
Answer
  • Biomass acquisition
  • Reduced vitality
  • Nucleic-acid replication
  • Enhanced ability to compete with other microbial species

Question 23

Question
One factor that is NOT used to prevent or reduce fungal spoilage of processed foods is:
Answer
  • Addition of benzene
  • Low water-activity
  • Refrigeration
  • Heat-sterilization

Question 24

Question
Saprophytic activity is essential for the health of the biosphere because:
Answer
  • It facilitates nutrient cycling and waste degradation
  • It kills host organisms and thereby averts overpopulation
  • It facilitates species evolution via endosymbiosis
  • It involves mineralization of inorganic rocks in the lithosphere

Question 25

Question
The cardinal temperatures are the:
Answer
  • Minimum temperatures
  • Optimum temperatures
  • Maximum temperatures
  • Minimum, optimum, and maximum temperatures taken together

Question 26

Question
Carl Woese of the University of Illinois and his collaborators identified two major branches of prokaryotic evolution. What was the basis for dividing prokaryotes into two domains?
Answer
  • Microscopic examination of the staining characteristics of the cell wall
  • Metabolic characteristics such as the production of methane gas
  • Ecological characteristics such as the ability to survive extreme temperatures
  • Molecular characteristics such as ribosomal RNA sequences

Question 27

Question
Which prokaryotes should be expected to be most strongly resistant to plasmolysis in hypertonic environments?
Answer
  • Extreme halophiles
  • Extreme thermophiles
  • Methanogens
  • Nitrogen-fixing bacteria that live in root nodules

Question 28

Question
Photoautotophs use:
Answer
  • Light as an energy source and CO2 as a carbon source
  • Light as an energy and methane as a carbon source
  • CO2 as both an energy source and a carbon source
  • All of the above

Question 29

Question
Addition of blood to a culture medium only allows the haemolytic bacteria that grow on the plate to be picked out. This is an example of a:
Answer
  • Selective medium
  • Differential medium
  • Complex medium
  • Synthetic medium

Question 30

Question
A microbe growing in a functioning refrigerator is probably a:
Answer
  • Psychrophile
  • Mesophile
  • Thermophile
  • Hyperthermophile

Question 31

Question
Which one of the following sentences correctly describes the science of Metagenomics?
Answer
  • Metagenomics is a genome- level study of the whole microbial community
  • Metagenomics is a genomics of industrially and medically important bacteria
  • Metagenomics is a study of genes’ expression
  • Metagenomics is a comparative analysis of the sequenced microbial genomes

Question 32

Question
Genetic recombination is a:
Answer
  • Change of DNA structure caused by radiation
  • Amplification of DNA molecules followed by cell division
  • Physical exchange between DNA molecules
  • Process resulting in protein synthesis

Question 33

Question
All viruses:
Answer
  • Enter cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis
  • Replicate their genomes in the nucleus of the cell
  • Replicate their genomes in the cytoplasm of the cell
  • Surround their progeny genomes with capsid proteins inside infected cells

Question 34

Question
Tobacco mosaic virus has:
Answer
  • An icosahedral capsid
  • A helical capsid
  • Multiple copies of each of four proteins making up the capsid
  • Multiple copies of two proteins making up the capsid

Question 35

Question
Anthrophilic dermatophytes (fungi causing cutaneous infections of humans) are primarily associated with:
Answer
  • Soil
  • Animals
  • Plants
  • Humans

Question 36

Question
Secondary symptoms of infections of plants by pathogens:
Answer
  • Occur at some distance from the point of infection
  • Normally occur close to the site of active infection
  • Are an ideal place to isolate the causal organism
  • Never occur at the same time as primary symptoms

Question 37

Question
Which one of the following infectious diseases has been eradicated from the human population?
Answer
  • Plague
  • Leprosy
  • Small pox
  • Polio

Question 38

Question
Which of the following is a host component important in specific immune recognition of extracellular microbes?
Answer
  • Antigen
  • Antibody
  • Phagocyte
  • Lipopolysaccharide

Question 39

Question
With regard to the differences between bacterial and eukaryotic cells which statement is the CORRECT one?
Answer
  • Bacterial cells do not contain mitochondria
  • Bacterial cells are always larger than eukaryote cells
  • Bacteria do not contain a chromosome
  • Eukaryotic cells are sensitive to β-lactam antibiotics

Question 40

Question
Koch’s postulates most CORRECTLY relate to which one of the following statements?
Answer
  • The isolation of a bacterium in culture from an infection alone indicates that it caused the disease
  • Isolation and cultivation of a microorganism from a diseased animal, then inoculation into another healthy animal to cause the same disease, followed by re-isolation of the same microorganism, indicates that it is the cause of the disease
  • The observation of virus particles in tissue from a human with disease indicates that it has caused the disease
  • Inoculation of a bacterium into an animal and observation of disease alone indicates that it is the cause of the disease observed

Question 41

Question
Which statement is CORRECT with respect to Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)?
Answer
  • LPS is found in Gram positive cells
  • LPS is found in Gram negative cells in the cytoplasmic membrane
  • LPS is found in the outer-membrane of Gram negative cells.
  • LPS is found inside all bacterial cells

Question 42

Question
A culture of E. coli is diluted by a factor of 10-6 and, after plating out 100 μl on an agar plate, 57 colonies grew after incubation at 37oC overnight. The original culture therefore contained how many viable E. coli cells per ml?
Answer
  • 5.7 x 10(7)
  • 5.7 x 10(8)
  • 5.7 x 10(6)
  • 5.7 x 10(5)

Question 43

Question
With respect to differences between members of the archaeal and bacterial domains/kingdoms, which is the CORRECT statement?
Answer
  • With respect to differences between members of the archaeal and bacterial domains/kingdoms, which is the CORRECT statement?
  • Only some Archaea are capable of methanogenesis
  • Archaea are sensitive to β-lactam antibiotics
  • Bacteria have similar RNA polymerase to that of Archaea

Question 44

Question
Which statement is CORRECT with respect to peptidoglycan?
Answer
  • There are multiple molecules of peptidoglycan in bacterial cell walls
  • Only Gram positive cells possess peptidoglycan
  • There is only a single molecule of peptidoglycan in a bacterial cell wall
  • Peptidoglycan is only found in Gram negative cell walls

Question 45

Question
The primary reason that health professionals recommend that new-born babies are not washed is:
Answer
  • So that they can be inoculated with symbiotic yeast species
  • To avoid imbalances in the microbial ecology of indigenous flora
  • To avoid accidental contamination with fungal spores
  • So that clinical microbiologists can study the impact on the current generation

Question 46

Question
Post-genomic techniques include:
Answer
  • Proteomics
  • Use of restriction enzymes
  • Gene sequencing
  • Studies of signal-transduction pathways

Question 47

Question
Systems biology approaches to the study of fungal cells do NOT necessarily involve:
Answer
  • Generation of data from biological experiments
  • Mathematical quantification of changes in cell components
  • Creation of a model of the cellular system in silico
  • Creation of a conceptual model based on philosophical techniques

Question 48

Question
Which of these statements is untrue?
Answer
  • Some species of yeasts are highly tolerant to ethanol stress
  • Some species of fungi are extremely xerophilic
  • Many fungi are more tolerant to water stress than any bacterial species
  • Fungi can grow over the entire pH range from 0 to 14

Question 49

Question
An extremophilic microbe is one which:
Answer
  • Can survive dry conditions
  • Can grow only when there is a mixture of stress parameters (e.g. high temperatures and low pH)
  • Can grow optimally under extreme conditions
  • Becomes dormant under extreme conditions
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