Product Design

cmbj
Mind Map by cmbj, updated more than 1 year ago
cmbj
Created by cmbj almost 7 years ago
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Product Design Mind Map on Product Design, created by cmbj on 04/15/2013.
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Resource summary

Product Design

Annotations:

  • @ All metals come from some type of ore obtained from the earth. @ All metals also required some sort of heating to make e.g. Smelting.
1 Materials
1.1 Metals

Annotations:

  • All metals originate from a type of ore found in the ground. Requires heating or smelting to make metal
1.1.1 Ferrous

Annotations:

  • Contain Iron and therefore rust and are magnetic.
  • Can be coated to prevent rusting with: @ Zinc galvanising @ Paint - Hammerite
1.1.1.1 Cast Iron

Annotations:

  • @ Almost impossible to weld @ Brittle and will shatter if dropped. @ High thermal conductivity
1.1.1.1.1 White

Annotations:

  • Uses: @ Heavy Machinery
  • @ Brittle and very hard @ Cannot be machined @ Not easy to work with
  • Carbon content: @ 1.7-2.9%
1.1.1.1.2 Grey

Annotations:

  • @ Can be machined @ Easily Cast @ Corrosion resistant
  • @ Can be machined @ Easily cast @ Corrosion resistant
  • Carbon Content: @ 2.5-4.0%
1.1.1.2 Mild Steel

Annotations:

  • Uses: @ Nuts and Bolts @ General Engineering
  • @ Ductile, tough and malleable @ High tensile strength  @ Very versatile @ Easily worked @ Cannot be heat treated
  • Carbon content: @ 0.15-0.30%
1.1.1.3 Carbon Steel

Annotations:

  • All Can be heat treated to alter its properties.
1.1.1.3.1 High Carbon

Annotations:

  • Uses: @ Hammer Heads @ Drills @ Cutting Tools
  • @ Properties can be improved by heat treating.
  • Carbon content: @ 0.70-1.40%
1.1.1.3.2 Medium Carbon

Annotations:

  • Uses: @ Gardening Tools @ Springs
  • @ Harder than mild steel  @ Less ductile and malleable than M.Steel
  • Carbon Content: @ 0.30-0.70%
1.1.2 Non-Ferrous

Annotations:

  • Don't rust due to the absence of Iron as well as not being magnetic.
1.1.2.1 Aluminum

Annotations:

  • Uses: @ Aircraft Industry @ Engine components @ Castings
  • @ Light Weight @ Corrosion resistant @ Good conductor @ Soft and malleable @ Oxidises to product protective layer ! Can crack under stress ! Requires constant annealing when worked ! Can't with stand heavy loads ! Always alloyed ! Difficult to weld
  • Melting point:  @ 650*C
1.1.2.2 Copper

Annotations:

  • Uses: @ Electrical cables @ Central heating @ PCBs
  • @ Good conductor of Heat @ Good conductor of Electricity @ Corrosion resistant @ Very malleable and ductile @ Can be worked cold ! Danger of electrolysis if joined to iron pipes in water systems ! Requires constant annealing when worked.
  • Melting point: @ 1100*C
1.1.2.3 Zinc

Annotations:

  • Uses: @ Galvanising @ Batteries @ Casting
  • @ Corrosion Resistant @ Easy to work @ Forms protective oxide layer ! Becomes brittle when worked
  • Melting point: @ 420*C
1.1.3 Alloys

Annotations:

  • Mix of metals to increase the desired properties.
1.1.3.1 Brass

Annotations:

  • Alloy: Copper Zinc
  • @ Casts well @ Easy to machine @ Good conductor of heat and electricity @ Corrosion resistant ! Susceptible to cracking when cold worked ! Needs to be constantly annealed
  • Uses: @ Centeral heating valves @ Electrical components @ Plumbing fittings @ Ship propellors
1.1.3.2 Stainless Steel

Annotations:

  • Alloy: Chromium Steel Nickel
  • @ Corrosion resistant ! Expensive ! Hard to cut
  • Uses: @ Utensils @ Medical tools @ Chemical and nuclear industries
1.1.3.3 Duralumin

Annotations:

  • Alloy: Copper Aluminium Manganese
  • @ Lightweight @ Very strong @ Ductile and malleable ! Age hardens
  • Uses:  @ Aviation Industry @ Automobile Industry
1.2 Polymers

Annotations:

  • Means "Plastic" in DT
1.2.1 Thermosetting

Annotations:

  • Produced by mixing a resin and a catalyst (Liquid/Gas) that then react and become solid permanently and cannot be reshaped and are hard to recycle.
1.2.1.1 Epoxy Resin

Annotations:

  • Uses: @ Adhesive @ Paints and coatings @ Electronics
  • @ Corrosion resistant @ Electrical resistant @ Good bond qualities  ! Can be an allergen ! Suspected of health problems
1.2.1.2 Urea formaldehyde

Annotations:

  • Uses: @ Electrical fittings @ Domestic appliance components
  • @ Strong @ Hard @ Heat resistant ! Can emit toxic vapours ! Brittle
1.2.1.3 Polyester resin

Annotations:

  • Uses: @ Glass reinforced boat @ Garden furniture
  • @ Good electrical insulator @ Heat resistant ! Brittle ! Can crack
1.2.2 Thermoplastic

Annotations:

  • Made of long chains of molecules and are held together by mutual attraction (Van der Waals Forces). They can be recycled easily due to them being softened by heat becoming malleable
1.2.2.1 Acrylic

Annotations:

  • Uses:  @ Lighting @ CD Cases @ Car lights @ Baths
  • @ Good electrical insulator @ Durable @ Hard ! Stiff ! Brittle ! Scratches easily ! Splinters easily
1.2.2.2 Polyethylene
1.2.2.2.1 High Density (HDPE)

Annotations:

  • Uses: @ Water tanks @ Water pipes @ Buckets @ Bowls
  • @ Good electric insulator @ Chemical resistant @ Impact resistant @ Flexible ! Colour tends to fade ! Can break under stress
1.2.2.2.2 Low Density (LDPE)

Annotations:

  • Uses: @ Liquid bottles @ Black Sacks @ Cable insulation @ Packaging film
  • @ Good electric insulator @ Chemical resistant @ Flexible ! Colour tends to fade ! Can break under stress
1.2.2.2.3 Terephthalate

Annotations:

  • Uses: @ Fizzy Drinks Bottles
  • @ Good alcohol and oil barrier @ Chemical Resistant @ High impact resistance  @ High tensile strength ! Can discolour ! Can seep flavours to food in it
1.2.2.3 Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC)

Annotations:

  • Uses: @ Electrical wiring insulation @ Pipes and guttering @ Floor covering
  • @ Chemical resistant @ Weather resistant @ Tough and lightweight ! Can become brittle over time ! UV causes brittleness
1.2.2.4 Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS)

Annotations:

  • Uses: @ Mobile phones @ Safety helmets
  • @ Chemical resistant @ Hard @ Tough ! UV causes degradation
1.2.2.5 Polystyrene (PS)
1.2.2.5.1 Expanded

Annotations:

  • Uses: @ Packaging @ Insulation @ Displays
  • @ Buoyant @ Lightweight @ Good Insulator ! Crumples and breaks ! Easily ignites
1.2.2.5.2 Compressed

Annotations:

  • Uses: @ CD cases @ Water tanks @ Fridge linings
  • @ Light @ Hard ! Low impact strength ! Brittle ! Stiff ! Weak ! Ignites easily
1.2.2.6 Polypropylene

Annotations:

  • Uses: @ Medical Syringes @ Carpets @ Kitchenware
  • @ Light, hard and impact resistant @ Chemical resistant ! UV causes degradation ! Oxidation can be a problem during manufacture 
1.3 Wood
1.3.1 Hardwoods

Annotations:

  • @Not necessarily physically hard. @Come from broad leafed trees whose seeds are enclosed. 
  • @Usually grow in warm climates and can take over 80 years to grow.  @Therefore they tend to be costly and also since they tend to be imported from warmer climates there cost is increased further.
  • Properties: @ Strong @ Tough @ Close grain
1.3.1.1 Oak

Annotations:

  • Uses: @ Construction @ Garden furniture @ HQ Furniture
  • @ Strong @ Durable @ Hard @ Tough ! Expensive ! Heavy ! Prone to splitting ! Can be physically hard
1.3.1.2 Mahogany

Annotations:

  • Uses: @ Veneers @ Furniture @ Floorboards
  • @ Easy to work @ Durable @ Finishes well ! Grain can be variable  ! Prone to warping ! Physical hardness varies
1.3.1.3 Beech

Annotations:

  • Uses: @ Workshop benches @ School desks @ Furniture
  • @ Physically hard @ Tough @ Polishes well ! Prone to warping ! Not for outside use ! Difficult to work
1.3.2 Softwoods

Annotations:

  • @Not necessarily physically soft. @Come from conifers with cones.
  • @Usually grow in most climates and can take 30 years to grow @Therefore they tend to be cheaper than hardwoods due to them being more common and fairly easy to obtain.
1.3.2.1 Pine

Annotations:

  • Uses: @ Construction @ Roof joists @ Floorboards @ Furniture
  • @ Straight grain @ Easy to work ! Knots can make it hard to work.
1.4 Composites

Annotations:

  •  2 or more materials that have been bonded to create an improved material They have many uses
1.4.1 Glass reinforced plastic (GRP)

Annotations:

  • @ Made from thermosetting plastic resin with very fine glass strands to give added strength.
  • @ High strength @ Good strength to weight ratio @ Corrosion resistant ! Safety hazard ! Fumes produced ! Glass fibres emitted
1.4.2 Wood based
1.4.2.1 MDF

Annotations:

  • @ Widely used and made mainly of wood chips @ Made under pressure and heat by mixing wood chips with resins. @ Laminated to increase strength
  • @ Cheap @ No warping or splitting @ Good finish ! Causes irritation ! Carcinogenic ! Makes lot of dust
1.4.2.2 Chipboard

Annotations:

  • @ Like MDF but there are different densities of it
  • @ Solid  @ Hard @ Fire retardant ! Swells and falls apart if wet
1.4.2.3 Laminates

Annotations:

  • @ Made of veneers that are glued together @ used to make other less aesthetically pleasing materials more pleasing to look at @ Can be used to protect material underneath
  • @ Don't deform @ Cheaper than solid wood @ Easy to work ! Not often aesthetically pleasing
1.4.2.4 Plywood

Annotations:

  • @ Made of Veneers whose grains are at right angles to the previous layer.
  • @ Strong @ Very strong @ Very versatile ! If wet it can come apart
1.4.2.5 Blockboard

Annotations:

  • @ made like laminates but uses strips of thick wood to act as the centre.
  • @ Resistant to warping ! Ends need neatening to make them aesthetically pleasing
1.4.3 Carbon fibre

Annotations:

  • @ Made of carbon nano tubes and thermosetting resin like in GRP
  • @ Much stronger than GRP @ Very similar to GRP but safer and stronger ! Produces fibres
1.5 New Materials
1.5.1 Smart
1.5.1.1 Shape Memory Alloy

Annotations:

  • @ Returns to a set shape after distortion or alteration as soon as the force is removed.
  • @ Can be used repetatively ! Expensive ! Difficult to machine ! Not strong
1.5.1.2 Reactive Glass

Annotations:

  • @ Turns dark when introduced to a stimulus @ Commonly used in welding masks
1.5.1.3 Photochromic paint

Annotations:

  • @ Changes colour with the light conditions.
1.5.1.4 Quantum Tunnelling

Annotations:

  • @ Becomes conductor when manipulated physically @ Allows large currents to flow through it. @ The greater the stress the lower the resistance
1.5.2 Modern
1.5.2.1 Photochromic Glass

Annotations:

  • @ This glass reacts to light by darkening. @ this is caused by the silver halide in the glass that reacts with the chemicals placed with it.
1.5.2.2 Thermoceramics

Annotations:

  • @ Made by combining ceramics and metallic powders @ Very advanced material that are incredibly versatile.
  • @ Good high temperature resistance @ Hard and stable ! Can be brittle ! Imperfections can form in the ceramic. ! High cost
1.5.2.3 Solar Panels

Annotations:

  • @ Use photo voltaic cells to turn light into electricity @ uses 2 thin layers of silicon to create an exchange of electrons.
  • @ Renewable ! High cost ! Small amount of energy produced ! High set up cost
1.5.2.4 Liquid Crystal Displays

Annotations:

  • @ Organic carbon based compounds that have liquid and solid crystal characteristics. @ The compounds respond to voltage by going dark
  • @ Energy efficient @ Light  @ Wide range of sizes ! When used in TV's they can be inferior to cathode ray tubes and give a smaller viewing angle.
1.5.2.5 Electroluminescent Lighting

Annotations:

  • @ Converts electricity into light by running a voltage across electrodes. @ Uses phosphor to emit the light.
  • @ Low power consumption @ Waterproof @ Highly visible @ Extremely reliable ! Phosphor dissipates over time
2 Components
2.1 Joining
2.1.1 Nuts & Bolts

Annotations:

  • @ Made from carbon steel @ Easy to re-use @ Can be taken apart and put back together @ several different threads
2.2 Gears
2.3 Cams
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