Lengua y Derecho II, tercer parcial. Negotiable instruments

Manuel Luján
Quiz by Manuel Luján, updated more than 1 year ago
Manuel Luján
Created by Manuel Luján almost 2 years ago
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Description

Quiz on Lengua y Derecho II, tercer parcial. Negotiable instruments, created by Manuel Luján on 11/10/2019.

Resource summary

Question 1

Question
Chapter 24. The Function and Creation of Negotiable Instruments. Types of Negotiable Instruments. -[blank_start]Drafts[blank_end] and [blank_start]Checks[blank_end] (Orders to Pay) --[blank_start]Time[blank_end] [blank_start]Drafts[blank_end] and [blank_start]Sight[blank_end] [blank_start]Drafts[blank_end] --[blank_start]Trade[blank_end] [blank_start]Acceptances[blank_end] --Checks -[blank_start]Promissory[blank_end] [blank_start]Notes[blank_end] (Promises to Pay) -[blank_start]Certificates[blank_end] of Deposit (Promises to Pay) Requirements for Negotiability -[blank_start]Written[blank_end] [blank_start]Form[blank_end] -Signatures --Signature Requirements --[blank_start]Placement[blank_end] of the Signature -[blank_start]Unconditional[blank_end] Promise or Order to Pay --Promise or Order --[blank_start]Unconditionality[blank_end] of the Promise or Order -A [blank_start]Fixed[blank_end] [blank_start]Amount[blank_end] of Money --[blank_start]Fixed[blank_end] [blank_start]Amount[blank_end] --Payable in Money -Payable [blank_start]on[blank_end] [blank_start]Demand[blank_end] or [blank_start]at[blank_end] a [blank_start]Definite[blank_end] Time --Payable [blank_start]on[blank_end] [blank_start]Demand[blank_end] --Payable [blank_start]at[blank_end] a [blank_start]Definite[blank_end] Time --[blank_start]Acceleration[blank_end] Clause --[blank_start]Extension[blank_end] Clause -Payable to [blank_start]Order[blank_end] or to [blank_start]Bearer[blank_end] --[blank_start]Order[blank_end] Instruments --[blank_start]Bearer[blank_end] Instruments Factors that do not Affect [blank_start]Negotiability[blank_end]
Answer
  • Drafts
  • Checks
  • Time
  • Drafts
  • Sight
  • Drafts
  • Trade
  • Acceptances
  • Promissory
  • Notes
  • Certificates
  • Written
  • Form
  • Placement
  • Unconditional
  • Unconditionality
  • Fixed
  • Amount
  • Fixed
  • Amount
  • on
  • Demand
  • at
  • Definite
  • on
  • Demand
  • at
  • Definite
  • Acceleration
  • Extension
  • Order
  • Bearer
  • Order
  • Bearer
  • Negotiability

Question 2

Question
A negotiable instrument can function as a substitute [blank_start]for[blank_end] [blank_start]cash[blank_end] or as an [blank_start]extension[blank_end] [blank_start]of[blank_end] credit.
Answer
  • for
  • cash
  • extension
  • of

Question 3

Question
For a negotiable instrument to operate practically as either a substitute for cash or a [blank_start]credit[blank_end] [blank_start]device[blank_end], or both, it is essential that the instrument be easily [blank_start]transferable[blank_end] without danger of being [blank_start]uncollectible[blank_end].
Answer
  • credit
  • device
  • transferable
  • uncollectible

Question 4

Question
A negotiable instrument is a [blank_start]signed[blank_end] [blank_start]writing[blank_end] (or record) that contains an [blank_start]unconditional[blank_end] [blank_start]promise[blank_end] or [blank_start]order[blank_end] to pay an [blank_start]exact[blank_end] amount, either [blank_start]on[blank_end] [blank_start]demand[blank_end] or [blank_start]at[blank_end] a [blank_start]specific[blank_end] [blank_start]future[blank_end] time.
Answer
  • signed
  • writing
  • unconditional
  • promise
  • order
  • exact
  • on
  • demand
  • at
  • specific
  • future

Question 5

Question
A demand instrument is payable [blank_start]on[blank_end] [blank_start]demand[blank_end]—that is, it is payable immediately after it is [blank_start]issued[blank_end] and [blank_start]thereafter[blank_end] for a reasonable period of time. [blank_start]Issue[blank_end] is "the first delivery of an instrument by the maker or drawer (...) for the purpose of [blank_start]giving[blank_end] rights [blank_start]on[blank_end] the instrument to any person" [...[.
Answer
  • on
  • demand
  • issued
  • thereafter
  • Issue
  • giving
  • on

Question 6

Question
A draft is an [blank_start]unconditional[blank_end] written [blank_start]order[blank_end] that involves [blank_start]three[blank_end] parties.
Answer
  • unconditional
  • order
  • three

Question 7

Question
A [blank_start]time[blank_end] draft is payable at a definite future time. A [blank_start]sight[blank_end] draft (or [blank_start]demand[blank_end] draft) is payable [blank_start]on[blank_end] [blank_start]sight[blank_end]—that is, when it is [blank_start]presented[blank_end] to the [blank_start]drawee[blank_end].
Answer
  • time
  • sight
  • demand
  • on
  • sight
  • presented
  • drawee

Question 8

Question
A [blank_start]sight[blank_end] draft may be payable [blank_start]on[blank_end] [blank_start]acceptance[blank_end]. [blank_start]Acceptance[blank_end] is the drawee's written promise to pay the draft when it comes due.
Answer
  • acceptance
  • Acceptance
  • on
  • sight

Question 9

Question
A [blank_start]trade[blank_end] [blank_start]acceptance[blank_end] is a type of [blank_start]draft[blank_end] that is frequently used in the [blank_start]sale[blank_end] of [blank_start]goods[blank_end]. In a [blank_start]trade[blank_end] [blank_start]acceptance[blank_end], the [blank_start]seller[blank_end] of the [blank_start]goods[blank_end] is both the drawer and the payee. The [blank_start]buyer[blank_end] to whom credit is [blank_start]extended[blank_end] is the drawee.
Answer
  • trade
  • acceptance
  • draft
  • sale
  • goods
  • trade
  • acceptance
  • seller
  • goods
  • buyer
  • extended

Question 10

Question
[The] [blank_start]commercial[blank_end] [blank_start]money[blank_end] [blank_start]market[blank_end] [is] the market that businesses use for short-term borrowing.
Answer
  • commercial
  • money
  • market

Question 11

Question
The most commonly used type of [blank_start]draft[blank_end] is a check. The [blank_start]writer[blank_end] of the check is the drawer, the bank [blank_start]on[blank_end] which the check is drawn is the drawee, and the person [blank_start]to[blank_end] whom the check is [blank_start]made[blank_end] [blank_start]payable[blank_end] is the payee.
Answer
  • draft
  • writer
  • on
  • to
  • made
  • payable

Question 12

Question
With certain types of checks, such as [blank_start]cashier's[blank_end] checks, the bank is both the [blank_start]drawer[blank_end] and the [blank_start]drawee[blank_end].
Answer
  • cashier's
  • drawer
  • drawee

Question 13

Question
A [blank_start]promissory[blank_end] note is a written [blank_start]promise[blank_end] made by one person (the [blank_start]maker[blank_end] of the [blank_start]promise[blank_end]) to pay another (usually a [blank_start]payee[blank_end]) a specified sum. A [blank_start]promissory[blank_end] note, which is often referred to simply as a note, can be made [blank_start]payable[blank_end] at a definite time or [blank_start]on[blank_end] demand. It can name a specific [blank_start]payee[blank_end] or merely be payable to bearer.
Answer
  • promissory
  • promise
  • maker
  • promise
  • payee
  • promissory
  • payable
  • on
  • payee

Question 14

Question
A [blank_start]certificate[blank_end] of deposit ([blank_start]CD[blank_end]) is a type of [blank_start]note[blank_end] issued when a party deposits funds [blank_start]with[blank_end] a bank, and the bank promises to repay the funds, with interest, on a certain date. The bank is the [blank_start]maker[blank_end] of the note, and the [blank_start]depositor[blank_end] is the payee.
Answer
  • certificate
  • CD
  • note
  • with
  • maker
  • depositor

Question 15

Question
Normally, negotiable instruments must be [blank_start]evidenced[blank_end] by a writing or record. [...] The writing must be [blank_start]on[blank_end] material that [blank_start]lends[blank_end] [blank_start]itself[blank_end] [blank_start]to[blank_end] permanence. [...] The writing must also have [blank_start]portability[blank_end].
Answer
  • evidenced
  • on
  • lends
  • itself
  • to
  • portability

Question 16

Question
For an instrument to be negotiable, it must be signed by (1) the [blank_start]maker[blank_end] if it is a note or a certificate of deposit or (2) the [blank_start]drawer[blank_end] if it is a draft or a check.
Answer
  • maker
  • drawer

Question 17

Question
Almost any symbol executed or adopted by a person with the intent [blank_start]to[blank_end] [blank_start]authenticate[blank_end] a written or electronic document can be a signature.
Answer
  • to
  • authenticate

Question 18

Question
The terms of the promise or order must be included [blank_start]in[blank_end] the writing [blank_start]on[blank_end] the [blank_start]face[blank_end] of a negotiable instrument. The terms must also be [blank_start]unconditional[blank_end]—that is, they cannot be [blank_start]conditioned[blank_end] on the occurrence or nonoccurrence of some other event or agreement [...].
Answer
  • in
  • on
  • face
  • unconditional
  • conditioned

Question 19

Question
A mere [blank_start]acknowledgment[blank_end] of the debt, such as an I. O. U. [...], might logically imply a promise, but it is not sufficient under the UCC. This is because the UCC requires that a promise be an [blank_start]affirmative[blank_end] (express) [blank_start]undertaking[blank_end].
Answer
  • acknowledgment
  • affirmative
  • undertaking

Question 20

Question
A promise or order is conditional (and not negotiable) if it [blank_start]states[blank_end] (1) an express condition [blank_start]to[blank_end] payment, (2) that the promise or order is subject to or [blank_start]governed[blank_end] by another writing (or record), or (3) that the rights or obligations with respect to the promise or order are [blank_start]stated[blank_end] in another writing or record.
Answer
  • states
  • to
  • governed
  • stated

Question 21

Question
Negotiable instruments must state with certainty a [blank_start]fixed[blank_end] amount of money, with or without interest or other [blank_start]charges[blank_end] described in the promise or order, to be paid at the time the instrument is [blank_start]payable[blank_end]. [...] This requirement ensures that the [blank_start]value[blank_end] of the instrument can be determined with clarity and certainty.
Answer
  • fixed
  • charges
  • payable
  • value

Question 22

Question
The term "fixed amount" (sometimes called sum certain) means that the amount must be [blank_start]ascertainable[blank_end] [blank_start]from[blank_end] the face of the instrument. [...] The rate of interest may also be determined with reference to information that is not contained in the instrument if that information is [blank_start]readily[blank_end] [blank_start]ascertainable[blank_end] by reference to a formula or a source described in the instrument.
Answer
  • ascertainable
  • from
  • ascertainable
  • readily

Question 23

Question
An [blank_start]acceptor[blank_end] is a drawee who has [blank_start]accepted[blank_end], or agreed to pay, an instrument when it is presented later for payment.
Answer
  • acceptor
  • accepted

Question 24

Question
With an [blank_start]interest[blank_end]-[blank_start]bearing[blank_end] instrument, it is necessary to know the exact [blank_start]interval[blank_end] during which the interest will [blank_start]accrue[blank_end] to determine the instrument's value at the present time.
Answer
  • interest
  • bearing
  • interval
  • accrue

Question 25

Question
[blank_start]Presentment[blank_end] means a demand made by or on behalf of a person entitled to enforce an instrument to either pay or accept the instrument.
Answer
  • Presentment

Question 26

Question
An instrument is payable at a [blank_start]definite[blank_end] time if it states that it is payable (1) on a specified date, (2) within a [blank_start]definite[blank_end] period of time (such as thirty days) after being [blank_start]presented[blank_end] for payment, or (3) on a date or time readily [blank_start]ascertainable[blank_end] at the time the promise or order is issued.
Answer
  • definite
  • definite
  • presented
  • ascertainable

Question 27

Question
An instrument that is [blank_start]undated[blank_end] and made payable "one month after date" is clearly nonnegotiable. There is no way to determine the [blank_start]maturity[blank_end] date [blank_start]from[blank_end] the [blank_start]face[blank_end] of the instrument.
Answer
  • undated
  • maturity
  • from
  • face

Question 28

Question
Because one of the functions of a negotiable instrument is to [blank_start]serve[blank_end] as a substitute for cash, freedom to [blank_start]transfer[blank_end] is essential.
Answer
  • serve
  • transfer

Question 29

Question
An order instrument is an instrument that is payable (1) "to the [blank_start]order[blank_end] [blank_start]of[blank_end] an identified person" or (2) "to an identified person [blank_start]or[blank_end] [blank_start]order[blank_end]". An identified person is the person "to whom the instrument is initially payable" as determined by the intent of the maker or drawer.
Answer
  • order
  • of
  • or
  • order

Question 30

Question
A bearer instrument is an instrument that does not [blank_start]designate[blank_end] a specific payee.
Answer
  • designate

Question 31

Question
Unless the date of an instrument is necessary to determine a definite time [blank_start]for[blank_end] payment, the fact that an instrument is [blank_start]undated[blank_end] does not affect its negotiability. A typical example is an [blank_start]undated[blank_end] check, which is still negotiable.
Answer
  • for
  • undated
  • undated

Question 32

Question
[blank_start]Handwritten[blank_end] terms [blank_start]outweigh[blank_end] [blank_start]typewritten[blank_end] and [blank_start]printed[blank_end] terms [...], and [blank_start]typewritten[blank_end] terms [blank_start]outweigh[blank_end] [blank_start]printed[blank_end] terms. [blank_start]Words[blank_end] [blank_start]outweigh[blank_end] [blank_start]figures[blank_end] unless the [blank_start]words[blank_end] are ambiguous.
Answer
  • Handwritten
  • outweigh
  • typewritten
  • printed
  • typewritten
  • outweigh
  • printed
  • Words
  • outweigh
  • figures
  • words

Question 33

Question
When an instrument simply states "with interest" and does not specify a particular interest rate, the interest rate is the [blank_start]judgment[blank_end] rate of interest (a rate of interest [blank_start]fixed[blank_end] by statute that is applied to a monetary [blank_start]judgment[blank_end] awarded by a court until the [blank_start]judgment[blank_end] is paid or terminated).
Answer
  • judgment
  • fixed
  • judgment
  • judgment

Question 34

Question
Completá la imagen.
Answer
  • Holder
  • Due
  • Course
  • Order
  • Bearer
  • Qualified
  • Qualified
  • Qualified
  • Restrictive

Question 35

Question
Completá de nuevo.
Answer
  • Alternative
  • Joint
  • Alternative
  • Status
  • for
  • good
  • faith
  • without
  • notice
  • through
  • Shelter
  • Principle
  • on
  • Shelter
  • Principle

Question 36

Question
A negotiable instrument can be transferred to others by [blank_start]assignment[blank_end] or by [blank_start]negotiation[blank_end].
Answer
  • assignment
  • negotiation

Question 37

Question
Negotiation is the [blank_start]transfer[blank_end] of an instrument in such form that the transferee becomes a [blank_start]holder[blank_end]. [...] The [blank_start]method[blank_end] [of negotiating an instrument so that the receiver becomes a [blank_start]holder[blank_end]] depends on whether the instrument is an [blank_start]order[blank_end] instrument or a [blank_start]bearer[blank_end] instrument.
Answer
  • transfer
  • holder
  • method
  • holder
  • order
  • bearer

Question 38

Question
An [blank_start]order[blank_end] instrument contains the name of a [blank_start]payee[blank_end] capable of indorsing it.
Answer
  • order
  • payee

Question 39

Question
Negotiating order instruments requires both delivery and [blank_start]indorsement[blank_end].
Answer
  • indorsement

Question 40

Question
If an instrument is payable to bearer, it is negotiated by delivery—that is, by transfer into another person's [blank_start]possession[blank_end].
Answer
  • possession

Question 41

Question
An indorsement is a [blank_start]signature[blank_end] with or without additional words or [blank_start]statements[blank_end].
Answer
  • statements
  • signature

Question 42

Question
A [blank_start]blank[blank_end] indorsement does not [blank_start]specify[blank_end] a particular [blank_start]indorsee[blank_end] and can consist of a mere signature. An [blank_start]order[blank_end] instrument indorsed in [blank_start]blank[blank_end] becomes a [blank_start]bearer[blank_end] instrument and can be negotiated by [blank_start]delivery[blank_end] alone.
Answer
  • blank
  • indorsee
  • specify
  • order
  • blank
  • bearer
  • delivery

Question 43

Question
A [blank_start]special[blank_end] indorsement contains the signature of the [blank_start]indorser[blank_end] and identifies the person to whom the [blank_start]indorser[blank_end] intends to make the instrument payable; that is, it names the [blank_start]indorsee[blank_end].
Answer
  • special
  • indorser
  • indorser
  • indorsee

Question 44

Question
To avoid the risk of loss from theft, a holder may [blank_start]convert[blank_end] a [blank_start]blank[blank_end] indorsement to a [blank_start]special[blank_end] indorsement by writing, above the signature of the [blank_start]indorser[blank_end], words identifying the [blank_start]indorsee[blank_end].
Answer
  • convert
  • blank
  • special
  • indorser
  • indorsee

Question 45

Question
Generally, an indorser, merely by indorsing, impliedly promises to pay the holder, or any [blank_start]subsequent[blank_end] indorser, the amount of the instrument in the event that the drawer or maker defaults [blank_start]on[blank_end] the [blank_start]payment[blank_end]. [...] An indorser who does not wish to be liable [blank_start]on[blank_end] an instrument can use a [blank_start]qualified[blank_end] indorsement to [blank_start]disclaim[blank_end] this liability [...].
Answer
  • subsequent
  • on
  • payment
  • qualified
  • disclaim
  • on

Question 46

Question
[[blank_start]Qualified[blank_end] indorsements] [[blank_start]relieve[blank_end]] indorser of any liability for payment of the instrument [...].
Answer
  • Qualified
  • relieve

Question 47

Question
A [blank_start]restrictive[blank_end] indorsement requires the indorsee to comply with certain [blank_start]instructions[blank_end] regarding the funds involved but does not prohibit further negotiation of the instrument.
Answer
  • restrictive
  • instructions

Question 48

Question
A common type of [blank_start]restrictive[blank_end] indorsement makes the indorsee (almost always a bank) a [blank_start]collecting[blank_end] agent of the indorser.
Answer
  • restrictive
  • collecting

Question 49

Question
When a drawer gives one alternative or joint payee a check, the drawer's obligation [blank_start]on[blank_end] the check to other payees is [blank_start]suspended[blank_end].
Answer
  • on
  • suspended

Question 50

Question
A holder in due course (HDC) is a holder who, by [blank_start]meeting[blank_end] certain [blank_start]acquisition[blank_end] requirements [...], takes an instrument [blank_start]free[blank_end] of most of the defenses and claims that could be [blank_start]asserted[blank_end] against the transferor. Stated another way, an HDC can normally [blank_start]acquire[blank_end] a higher level of [blank_start]immunity[blank_end] than can an [blank_start]ordinary[blank_end] holder in regard to defenses against payment [blank_start]on[blank_end] the instrument or ownership claims [blank_start]to[blank_end] the instrument by other parties.
Answer
  • meeting
  • acquisition
  • free
  • asserted
  • acquire
  • immunity
  • ordinary
  • on
  • to

Question 51

Question
And HDC must first be a [blank_start]holder[blank_end] of a negotiable instrument and must have [blank_start]taken[blank_end] the instrument (1) for [blank_start]value[blank_end], (2) in [blank_start]good[blank_end] [blank_start]faith[blank_end], and (3) without [blank_start]notice[blank_end] that it is [blank_start]defective[blank_end] (such as when the instrument is overdue, dishonored, irregular, or incomplete).
Answer
  • holder
  • taken
  • value
  • good
  • faith
  • notice
  • defective

Question 52

Question
An HDC must have [blank_start]given[blank_end] [blank_start]value[blank_end] for the instrument. A person who receives an instrument as a gift or inherits it has not met the requirement of value.
Answer
  • given
  • value

Question 53

Question
A holder takes an instrument for [blank_start]value[blank_end] if the holder has done any of the following: 1- [blank_start]Performed[blank_end] the promise for which the instrument was issued or transferred. 2- Acquired a [blank_start]security[blank_end] [blank_start]interest[blank_end] or other [blank_start]lien[blank_end] in the instrument, excluding a [blank_start]lien[blank_end] obtained by a judicial [blank_start]proceeding[blank_end] [...]. 3- Taken the instrument in payment of, or as security for, an [blank_start]antecedent[blank_end] claim [...]. 4- Given a negotiable instrument as payment. 5- Given an irrevocable [blank_start]commitment[blank_end] (such as a letter of credit [...]) as payment.
Answer
  • value
  • Performed
  • security
  • interest
  • lien
  • lien
  • proceeding
  • antecedent
  • commitment

Question 54

Question
Although an [blank_start]executory[blank_end] promise (a promise to give [blank_start]value[blank_end] in the future) is clearly a valid consideration to [blank_start]support[blank_end] a contract, it does not [blank_start]constitute[blank_end] sufficient [blank_start]value[blank_end] to make the promisor an HDC. [...] A holder takes an instrument for [blank_start]value[blank_end] only [blank_start]to[blank_end] the extent that the promise has been [blank_start]performed[blank_end].
Answer
  • executory
  • value
  • support
  • constitute
  • value
  • value
  • to
  • performed

Question 55

Question
The holder must take the instrument in good faith. [...] This means that the holder must have acted honestly in the process of acquiring the instrument. [The Uniform Commercial Code] defines "good faith" as "honesty in [blank_start]fact[blank_end] and the [blank_start]observance[blank_end] of reasonable [blank_start]commercial[blank_end] standards of [blank_start]fair[blank_end] dealing" [..].
Answer
  • fact
  • observance
  • commercial
  • fair

Question 56

Question
The good faith requirement [blank_start]applies[blank_end] only [blank_start]to[blank_end] the holder.
Answer
  • to
  • applies

Question 57

Question
The holder in due course [blank_start]doctrine[blank_end] is designed to [blank_start]encourage[blank_end] the [blank_start]transfer[blank_end] and usage of checks and facilitate the [blank_start]flow[blank_end] of capital.
Answer
  • doctrine
  • encourage
  • transfer
  • flow

Question 58

Question
To be a holder one must meet two conditions * * *: (1) he or she must have [blank_start]possession[blank_end] (2) of an instrument drawn, issued, or indorsed to him or her.
Answer
  • possession

Question 59

Question
The final requirement [blank_start]for[blank_end] HDC status concerns [blank_start]notice[blank_end] of [blank_start]defects[blank_end]. A person cannot be an HDC if she or he [blank_start]knows[blank_end] or has reason to [blank_start]know[blank_end] that the instrument is [blank_start]defective[blank_end] in any one of the following ways [...]: 1. It is [blank_start]overdue[blank_end]. 2. It has been [blank_start]dishonored[blank_end]. 3. It is part of a series in which at least one instrument has an [blank_start]uncured[blank_end] (uncorrected) default. 4. The instrument contains an [blank_start]unauthorized[blank_end] signature or has been [blank_start]altered[blank_end]. 5. There is a [blank_start]defense[blank_end] against the instrument or a [blank_start]claim[blank_end] to the instrument. 6. The instrument is so incomplete or irregular as to [blank_start]call[blank_end] [blank_start]into[blank_end] [blank_start]question[blank_end] its [blank_start]authenticity[blank_end],
Answer
  • for
  • notice
  • knows
  • know
  • defects
  • defective
  • overdue
  • dishonored
  • uncured
  • unauthorized
  • altered
  • defense
  • claim
  • call
  • into
  • question
  • authenticity

Question 60

Question
A holder will be deemed to have [blank_start]notice[blank_end] if she or she (1) has actual [blank_start]knowledge[blank_end] of the defect; (2) has received a [blank_start]notice[blank_end] of the defect (such as a letter from a bank identifying the serial numbers of stolen bearer instruments); or (3) has [blank_start]reason[blank_end] to know that a defect exists, given all the facts and circumstances known at the time in question [...].
Answer
  • notice
  • knowledge
  • notice
  • reason

Question 61

Question
What constitutes notice that an instrument is overdue depends on whether it is a demand instrument (payable on demand) or a [blank_start]time[blank_end] instrument (payable at a definite time). A purchaser has notice that a demand instrument is overdue if he or she either takes the instrument knowing that demand has been [blank_start]made[blank_end] or takes the instrument an [blank_start]unreasonable[blank_end] length of time after its [blank_start]date[blank_end]. For a check, a "[blank_start]reasonable[blank_end] time" is [blank_start]ninety[blank_end] [blank_start]days[blank_end] after the date of the check. For all other demand instruments, what will be considered a [blank_start]reasonable[blank_end] time depends on the circumstances [...].
Answer
  • time
  • made
  • unreasonable
  • date
  • reasonable
  • ninety
  • days
  • reasonable

Question 62

Question
Normally, a time instrument is [blank_start]overdue[blank_end] [blank_start]on[blank_end] the day after its [blank_start]due[blank_end] date; hence, anyone who takes a time instrument after the [blank_start]due[blank_end] date is [blank_start]on[blank_end] notice that it is [blank_start]overdue[blank_end] [...].
Answer
  • overdue
  • on
  • due
  • due
  • on
  • overdue

Question 63

Question
An instrument is [blank_start]dishonored[blank_end] when the party to whom the instrument is [blank_start]presented[blank_end] refuses to pay it. If a holder knows or has reason to know that an instrument has been [blank_start]dishonored[blank_end], the holder is on notice and cannot [blank_start]claim[blank_end] HDC status.
Answer
  • dishonored
  • presented
  • dishonored
  • claim

Question 64

Question
A holder cannot become an HDC if he or she has notice of any claim to the instrument or defense against it [...]. Knowledge of claims or defenses can be [blank_start]imputed[blank_end] (attributed) to the purchaser if these claims or defenses are [blank_start]apparent[blank_end] on the face of the instrument or if the purchaser otherwise had reason to know of them from facts surrounding the transaction.
Answer
  • imputed
  • apparent

Question 65

Question
A purchaser cannot become an HDC of an instrument so incomplete [blank_start]on[blank_end] its [blank_start]face[blank_end] that an element of [blank_start]negotiability[blank_end] is lacking [...]. [blank_start]Minor[blank_end] omissions are permissible because they do not [blank_start]call[blank_end] [blank_start]into[blank_end] [blank_start]question[blank_end] the validity of the instrument [...].
Answer
  • on
  • face
  • negotiability
  • Minor
  • call
  • into
  • question

Question 66

Question
Any irregularity [blank_start]on[blank_end] the [blank_start]face[blank_end] of an instrument (such as an obvious forgery or alteration) that [blank_start]calls[blank_end] [blank_start]into[blank_end] [blank_start]question[blank_end] its validity or ownership, or that creates an ambiguity as to the party to pay, will [blank_start]bar[blank_end] HDC status.
Answer
  • on
  • face
  • calls
  • into
  • question
  • bar

Question 67

Question
A person who does not [blank_start]qualify[blank_end] as an HDC but who [blank_start]derives[blank_end] his or her title [blank_start]through[blank_end] an HDC can acquire the rights and privileges of an HDC. This rule [...] is sometimes called the [blank_start]shelter[blank_end] [blank_start]principle[blank_end] [...].
Answer
  • qualify
  • derives
  • through
  • shelter
  • principle

Question 68

Question
The [blank_start]shelter[blank_end] [blank_start]principle[blank_end] extends the benefits of an HDC status and is designed to [blank_start]aid[blank_end] the HDC in readily [blank_start]disposing[blank_end] [blank_start]of[blank_end] the instrument. Anyone, no matter how far [blank_start]removed[blank_end] from an HDC, who can ultimately [blank_start]trace[blank_end] her or his title back to an HDC comes within the [blank_start]shelter[blank_end] [blank_start]principle[blank_end].
Answer
  • shelter
  • principle
  • aid
  • disposing
  • of
  • removed
  • trace
  • shelter
  • principle

Question 69

Question
By [blank_start]extending[blank_end] the benefits of HDC status, the [blank_start]shelter[blank_end] [blank_start]principle[blank_end] promotes the [blank_start]marketability[blank_end] and free transferability of negotiable instruments.
Answer
  • extending
  • shelter
  • principle
  • marketability

Question 70

Question
A holder is defined as a person in [blank_start]possession[blank_end] of an instrument "if the instrument is payable to [blank_start]bearer[blank_end] or, in the cases of an instrument payable to an identified person, if the identified person is in [blank_start]possession[blank_end]" [...].
Answer
  • possession
  • bearer
  • possession

Question 71

Question
Liability [blank_start]on[blank_end] a negotiable instrument can [blank_start]arise[blank_end] either from a person's signature on the instrument (signature liability) or from the [blank_start]warranties[blank_end] that are implied when the person [blank_start]presents[blank_end] the instrument [blank_start]for[blank_end] negotiation ([blank_start]warranty[blank_end] liability). A person who signs a negotiable instrument is potentially liable [blank_start]for[blank_end] payment of the amount stated [blank_start]on[blank_end] the instrument. Unlike signature liability, [blank_start]warranty[blank_end] liability does not require a signature and [blank_start]extends[blank_end] to both signers and nonsigners.
Answer
  • on
  • arise
  • warranties
  • warranty
  • presents
  • for
  • for
  • on
  • warranty
  • extends

Question 72

Question
The general rule is that every party, except a [blank_start]qualified[blank_end] indorser [one who indorses "without [blank_start]recourse[blank_end]"], who signs a negotiable instrument is either primarily or secondarily liable [blank_start]for[blank_end] payment of that instrument when it [blank_start]comes[blank_end] due.
Answer
  • qualified
  • recourse
  • for
  • comes

Question 73

Question
Signature liability is [blank_start]contractual[blank_end] liability—no person will be held [blank_start]contractually[blank_end] liable for an instrument that he or she has not signed personally or through an authorized [blank_start]representative[blank_end] (agent).
Answer
  • contractual
  • contractually
  • representative

Question 74

Question
A person who is primarily liable on a negotiable instrument is [blank_start]absolutely[blank_end] required to pay the instrument—unless, of course, he or she has a valid defense [blank_start]to[blank_end] payment. Liability is immediate when the instrument is signed or issued. No action by the holder of the instrument is required. Only makers and [blank_start]acceptors[blank_end] of instruments are primarily liable [...].
Answer
  • absolutely
  • to
  • acceptors

Question 75

Question
The maker of a promissory note unconditionally promises to pay the note according to its terms. It is the maker's promise to pay that [blank_start]renders[blank_end] the instrument negotiable.
Answer
  • renders

Question 76

Question
An [blank_start]acceptor[blank_end] is a drawee who promises to pay an instrument when it is [blank_start]presented[blank_end] later for payment [...] Once a drawee [blank_start]accepts[blank_end] a draft [...], the drawee becomes an [blank_start]acceptor[blank_end] and is obligated to pay the draft when it is presented for payment[...]. [blank_start]Acceptance[blank_end] of a check is called [blank_start]certification[blank_end].
Answer
  • acceptor
  • presented
  • accepts
  • acceptor
  • Acceptance
  • certification

Question 77

Question
Drawers and [blank_start]indorsers[blank_end] are [blank_start]secondarily[blank_end] liable. On a negotiable instrument, [blank_start]secondary[blank_end] liability is similar to the liability of a guarantor in a simple contract [...] in the sense that it is [blank_start]contingent[blank_end] liability. In other words, a [blank_start]drawer[blank_end] or an indorser will be liable only if the party that is [blank_start]primarily[blank_end] responsible for paying the instrument refuses to do so—that is, [blank_start]dishonors[blank_end] the instrument.
Answer
  • indorsers
  • secondarily
  • secondary
  • contingent
  • drawer
  • primarily
  • dishonors

Question 78

Question
On drafts and checks, a drawer's [blank_start]secondary[blank_end] liability does not arise until the drawee fails to pay or to [blank_start]accept[blank_end] the instrument, whichever is required. With regard to promissory notes, an indorser's [blank_start]secondary[blank_end] liability does not arise until the maker, who is primarily liable, has defaulted [blank_start]on[blank_end] the instrument [...].
Answer
  • secondary
  • accept
  • secondary
  • on

Question 79

Question
Parties are secondarily liable on a negotiable instrument only if the following events occur: 1. The instrument is [blank_start]properly[blank_end] and timely [blank_start]presented[blank_end]. 2. The instrument is [blank_start]dishonored[blank_end]. 3. Timely [blank_start]notice[blank_end] of [blank_start]dishonor[blank_end] is given to the secondarily liable party.
Answer
  • properly
  • presented
  • dishonored
  • notice
  • dishonor

Question 80

Question
[...] [blank_start]Presentment[blank_end] occurs when a person [blank_start]presents[blank_end] an instrument either to the party liable [blank_start]on[blank_end] the instrument for payment or to a drawee for [blank_start]acceptance[blank_end]. [...] The [blank_start]party[blank_end] to whom the instrument must be [blank_start]presented[blank_end] depends on the type of instrument involved. A note or certificate of deposit (CD) must be [blank_start]presented[blank_end] to the maker for payment. A draft is [blank_start]presented[blank_end] to the drawee for acceptance, payment, or both. A check is [blank_start]presented[blank_end] to the drawee (bank) for payment [...].
Answer
  • Presentment
  • presents
  • on
  • acceptance
  • party
  • presented
  • presented
  • presented
  • presented

Question 81

Question
Timeliness is important for proper [blank_start]presentment[blank_end]. [...] Failure to present an instrument [blank_start]on[blank_end] time is a common reason for [blank_start]improper[blank_end] presentment and can lead to unqualified indorsers being [blank_start]discharged[blank_end] from secondary liability. A reasonable time for presentment is determined by the nature of the instrument, any usage of banking or trade, and the facts of the particular time.
Answer
  • presentment
  • on
  • improper
  • discharged

Question 82

Question
[...] [A]n instrument is [blank_start]dishonored[blank_end] when payment or acceptance of the instrument is refused or cannot be obtained within the [blank_start]prescribed[blank_end] time. An instrument is also [blank_start]dishonored[blank_end] when the required presentment is [blank_start]excused[blank_end] (as it would be, for example, if the maker had died) and the instrument is not properly accepted or paid [...].
Answer
  • dishonored
  • prescribed
  • dishonored
  • excused

Question 83

Question
In certain situations, a [blank_start]delay[blank_end] in payment or a refusal to pay an instrument will not [blank_start]dishonor[blank_end] the instrument. When presentment is made after an established [blank_start]cutoff[blank_end] hour (not earlier than 2:00 PM), for instance, a bank can postpone payment until the following [blank_start]business[blank_end] day without [blank_start]dishonoring[blank_end] the instrument [...].
Answer
  • delay
  • dishonor
  • cutoff
  • dishonoring
  • business

Question 84

Question
Once an instrument has been dishonored, [blank_start]proper[blank_end] notice must be given to secondary parties (drawers and indorsers) for them to be [blank_start]held[blank_end] liable. Notice may be given [blank_start]in[blank_end] any reasonable manner [...]. If the party giving notice is a bank, it must give any necessary notice before its midnight deadline (midnight of the [blank_start]next[blank_end] banking day after receipt) [...]. Notice by any party other than a bank must be given within [blank_start]thirty[blank_end] days following the day of dishonor or the day on which the person who is secondarily liable received notice of dishonor [...].
Answer
  • proper
  • held
  • in
  • next
  • thirty

Question 85

Question
An [blank_start]accommodation[blank_end] party is one who [blank_start]signs[blank_end] an instrument for the purpose of [blank_start]lending[blank_end] his or her name as [blank_start]credit[blank_end] to another party [blank_start]on[blank_end] the instrument [...].
Answer
  • accommodation
  • lending
  • signs
  • credit
  • on

Question 86

Question
Generally, an authorized agent binds a principal [blank_start]on[blank_end] an instrument if the agent clearly names the principal in the signature (by writing, mark, or some symbol).
Answer
  • on

Question 87

Question
An authorized agent may be held personally liable on a negotiable instrument in three situations. First, [...], if the agent signed the [blank_start]agent's[blank_end] own name on the instrument with no indication that she or he was signing as an agent, an HDC can hold the agent personally liable. Second, an agent may be held liable if the agent signed in both the agent's name and the principal's name but nothing on the instrument indicated the [blank_start]agency[blank_end] relationship. [...] The third situation in which an agent may be liable is when the agent indicates agency status in signing a negotiable instrument but fails to name the [blank_start]principal[blank_end] [...].
Answer
  • agent's
  • agency
  • principal

Question 88

Question
An important exception to the rules on agent liability is made for checks that are signed by agents. If an agent signs his or her own name on a check that is payable [blank_start]from[blank_end] the account of the [blank_start]principal[blank_end], and the [blank_start]principal[blank_end] is identified on the check, the agent will not be personally liable on the check [...].
Answer
  • from
  • principal
  • principal

Question 89

Question
Unauthorized signatures arise in two situations—when a person [blank_start]forges[blank_end] another person's name on a negotiable instrument and when an agent who lacks the [blank_start]authority[blank_end] signs an instrument on behalf of a principal. The general rule is that an unauthorized signature is wholly [blank_start]inoperative[blank_end] and will not bind the person whose name is signed or [blank_start]forged[blank_end].
Answer
  • forges
  • authority
  • inoperative
  • forged

Question 90

Question
[I]f an agent lacks the authority to sign the principal's name or has [blank_start]exceeded[blank_end] the authority given by the principal, the signature does not bind the principal but will bind the "unauthorized signer" [...].
Answer
  • exceeded

Question 91

Question
There are two exceptions to the general rule that an unauthorized signature will not [blank_start]bind[blank_end] the person whose name is signed: 1- When the person whose name is signed [blank_start]ratifies[blank_end] (affirms) the signature, he or she will be [blank_start]bound[blank_end] [...]. 2.When the [blank_start]negligence[blank_end] of the person whose name was forged [blank_start]substantially[blank_end] contributed to the forgery, a court may not allow the person to deny the effectiveness of an unauthorized signature [...].
Answer
  • bind
  • ratifies
  • bound
  • substantially
  • negligence

Question 92

Question
A person who forges a check or signs an instrument without authorization can be [blank_start]held[blank_end] personally liable [blank_start]for[blank_end] payment by a holder in due course, or HDC. [...] A holder who knew the signature was unauthorized would not qualify as an HDC (because of the good faith requirement) and thus could not [blank_start]recover[blank_end] from [a person forging a check or signing an instrument without authorization] [blank_start]on[blank_end] the instrument.
Answer
  • held
  • for
  • recover
  • on

Question 93

Question
Generally, when an indorsement is forged or unauthorized, the [blank_start]burden[blank_end] of [blank_start]loss[blank_end] falls [blank_start]on[blank_end] the first party to take the instrument with the forged or unauthorized indorsement. The reason for this general rule is that the first party to [blank_start]take[blank_end] an instrument is in the best [blank_start]position[blank_end] to prevent the [blank_start]loss[blank_end]. [...] This general rule has two important exceptions. These exceptions arise when an indorsement is made by an [blank_start]imposter[blank_end] or by a [blank_start]fictitious[blank_end] [blank_start]payee[blank_end].
Answer
  • burden
  • loss
  • on
  • take
  • position
  • loss
  • imposter
  • fictitious
  • payee

Question 94

Question
An [blank_start]imposter[blank_end] is one who, by her or his personal appearance or use of the mails, Internet, telephone, or other communication, [blank_start]induces[blank_end] a maker or drawer [blank_start]to[blank_end] issue an instrument in the name of an [blank_start]impersonated[blank_end] payee.
Answer
  • imposter
  • induces
  • to
  • impersonated

Question 95

Question
When a person causes an instrument to be issued to a payee who will have no [blank_start]interest[blank_end] in the instrument, the payee is referred to as a [blank_start]fictitious[blank_end] [blank_start]payee[blank_end]. A [blank_start]fictitious[blank_end] [blank_start]payee[blank_end] can be a person or firm that does not truly exist, or it may be an identifiable party that will not acquire any [blank_start]interest[blank_end] in the instrument [...].
Answer
  • interest
  • fictitious
  • payee
  • fictitious
  • payee
  • interest

Question 96

Question
In addition to the signature liability, [blank_start]transferors[blank_end] make certain [blank_start]implied[blank_end] warranties regarding the instrument that they are negotiating. Warranty liability arises even when a [blank_start]transferor[blank_end] does not indorse (sign) the instrument [...]:
Answer
  • transferors
  • implied
  • transferor

Question 97

Question
Warranties fall into two categories: those that arise from the [blank_start]transfer[blank_end] of a negotiable instrument and those that arise [blank_start]on[blank_end] [blank_start]presentment[blank_end]. Both [blank_start]transfer[blank_end] and [blank_start]presentment[blank_end] warranties attempt to [blank_start]shift[blank_end] liability back to the wrongdoer or to the person who [blank_start]dealt[blank_end] face to face with the wrongdoer and thus was in the best [blank_start]position[blank_end] to prevent the wrongdoing.
Answer
  • transfer
  • on
  • presentment
  • transfer
  • presentment
  • shift
  • dealt
  • position

Question 98

Question
[...] [O]ne who [blank_start]transfers[blank_end] an instrument for consideration makes the following five [blank_start]transfer[blank_end] warranties to all subsequent [blank_start]transferees[blank_end] and holders who take the instrument in good faith with some exceptions [...]): 1. The [blank_start]transferor[blank_end] is entitled to [blank_start]enforce[blank_end] the instrument. 2. All [blank_start]signatures[blank_end] are authentic and authorized. 3. The instrument has not been [blank_start]altered[blank_end]. 4. The instrument is not subject to a defense or claim of any part that can be asserted against the [blank_start]transferor[blank_end]. 5. The [blank_start]transferor[blank_end] has no knowledge of any [blank_start]bankruptcy[blank_end] proceedings against the maker, the acceptor, or the drawer of the instrument.
Answer
  • transfers
  • transfer
  • transferees
  • transferor
  • enforce
  • signatures
  • altered
  • transferor
  • transferor
  • bankruptcy

Question 99

Question
For [blank_start]transfer[blank_end] warranties to arise, an instrument must be [blank_start]transferred[blank_end] for consideration.
Answer
  • transfer
  • transferred

Question 100

Question
[blank_start]Transfer[blank_end] of an order instrument by indorsement and delivery extends warranty liability to any [blank_start]subsequent[blank_end] holder who takes the instrument in good faith. The warranties of a person who, for consideration, [blank_start]transfers[blank_end] without indorsement (by delivery of a bearer instrument), however, will extend only to the immediate [blank_start]transferee[blank_end].
Answer
  • Transfer
  • subsequent
  • transfers
  • transferee

Question 101

Question
A [blank_start]transferee[blank_end] or holder who takes an instrument in good faith can sue [blank_start]on[blank_end] the basis of breach of a warranty as soon as he or she has reason to know of the breach [...]. Notice of a claim for breach of warranty must be given to the warrantor within [blank_start]thirty[blank_end] days after the [blank_start]transferee[blank_end] or holder has reason to know of the breach and the identity of the warrantor, or the warrantor is not liable for any loss caused by a delay [...].
Answer
  • transferee
  • on
  • thirty
  • transferee

Question 102

Question
Any person who [blank_start]presents[blank_end] an instrument for payment or acceptances makes the following [blank_start]presentment[blank_end] warranties to any other person who in good faith pays or accepts the instrument [...]: 1. The person obtaining payment or acceptance is entitled to [blank_start]enforce[blank_end] the instrument or is authorized to obtain payment or acceptance on behalf of a person who is entitled to [blank_start]enforce[blank_end] the instrument [...]. 2. The instrument has not been [blank_start]altered[blank_end]. 3. The person obtaining payment or acceptance has no knowledge that the signature of the drawer of the instrument is [blank_start]unauthorized[blank_end].
Answer
  • presents
  • presentment
  • enforce
  • enforce
  • altered
  • unauthorized

Question 103

Question
Depending on whether a holder or a holder in due course (HDC)—or a holder through an HDC—makes the demand for payment, certain defenses can bar collection from persons who would otherwise be liable [blank_start]on[blank_end] an instrument. There are two general categories of defenses—[blank_start]universal[blank_end] defenses and [blank_start]personal[blank_end] defenses [...].
Answer
  • on
  • universal
  • personal

Question 104

Question
[blank_start]Universal[blank_end] defenses (also called [blank_start]real[blank_end] defenses) are valid against all holders, including HDCs and holders through HDCs.
Answer
  • Universal
  • real

Question 105

Question
Forgery [...] Fraud in the [blank_start]execution[blank_end]. If a person is deceived into signing a negotiable instrument, believing that she or he is signing something other than a negotiable instrument (such as a receipt), fraud in the [blank_start]execution[blank_end] (or inception) is committed against the signer [...]. This defense cannot be raised, however, if a [blank_start]reasonable[blank_end] inquiry would have revealed the nature and terms of the instrument.
Answer
  • execution
  • execution
  • reasonable

Question 106

Question
Forgery [...] Fraud in the [blank_start]execution[blank_end] [...] [blank_start]Material[blank_end] alteration. An alteration is [blank_start]material[blank_end] if it changes the contract terms between two parties in any way. [...] [blank_start]Material[blank_end] alteration is a [blank_start]complete[blank_end] defense against an ordinary holder but only a [blank_start]partial[blank_end] defense against an HDC. [...]
Answer
  • execution
  • Material
  • material
  • Material
  • complete
  • partial

Question 107

Question
[blank_start]Personal[blank_end] defenses (sometimes called limited defenses) [...] are used to avoid payment to an [blank_start]ordinary[blank_end] holder of a negotiable instrument, but not to an HDC or a holder through an HDC.
Answer
  • Personal
  • ordinary

Question 108

Question
Fraud in the [blank_start]inducement[blank_end] ([blank_start]ordinary[blank_end] fraud). A person who issues a negotiable instrument based on false statements by the other party will be able to avoid payment [blank_start]on[blank_end] that instrument, unless the holder is an HDC.
Answer
  • inducement
  • ordinary
  • on

Question 109

Question
To protect [blank_start]consumers[blank_end] who purchased defective products, the [blank_start]Federal[blank_end] [blank_start]Trade[blank_end] [blank_start]Commission[blank_end] ([blank_start]FTC[blank_end]) adopted Rule [blank_start]433[blank_end].
Answer
  • consumers
  • Federal
  • Trade
  • Commission
  • FTC
  • 433
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