Renal Failure

Ash Lig
Quiz by Ash Lig, updated more than 1 year ago
Ash Lig
Created by Ash Lig over 5 years ago
246
4

Description

Practice quiz for renal failure.

Resource summary

Question 1

Question
What is the functional unit of the kidney?
Answer
  • glomerulus
  • nephron
  • medulla
  • cortex

Question 2

Question
Which part of the nephron is mainly responsible for regulating the concentration of urine?
Answer
  • Distal tubule
  • Proximal tubule
  • Loop of Henle
  • Collecting duct

Question 3

Question
Which hormone is required for the reabsorption of water in the collecting tubule?
Answer
  • Renin
  • Angiotensin
  • ADH
  • ANP

Question 4

Question
What is the main solute that is reabsorbed in the proximal tubule?
Answer
  • potassium K
  • sodium chloride NaCl
  • hydrogen H
  • urea

Question 5

Question
Which hormones serve to increase blood pressure? Select all.
Answer
  • angiotensin
  • aldosterone
  • Renin
  • ADH
  • epinephrine
  • norepinephrine

Question 6

Question
What is the net outward pressure that influences glomerular filtration?
Answer
  • 20 mmHg
  • 10 mmHg
  • 15 mmHg
  • 5 mmHg

Question 7

Question
Which hormone is produced by the nephrons?
Answer
  • Renin
  • ADH
  • ANP
  • Epinephrine

Question 8

Question
Up to __% of renal function can be lost before renal failure is noticeable.
Answer
  • 80%
  • 75%
  • 20%
  • 50%

Question 9

Question
60-70% of acute renal failure is caused by which type of failure?
Answer
  • Pre-renal failure
  • Intra-renal failure
  • Post-renal failure

Question 10

Question
Pre-renal failure is caused by what?
Answer
  • Renal hypo-perfusion
  • Obstruction to the urinary tract
  • Acute tubular necrosis
  • Glomerulonephritis

Question 11

Question
Check off all possible causes of post-renal failure.
Answer
  • renal calculi
  • ureteral stricture
  • benign prostatic hyperplasia
  • dehydration
  • cardiogenic shock
  • glomerulonephritis
  • pyelonephritis

Question 12

Question
Check off all possible causes of intra-renal failure.
Answer
  • Acute tubular necrosis
  • glomerulonephritis
  • pyelonephritis
  • nephrotic syndrome
  • ureteral stricture
  • cardiogenic shock

Question 13

Question
90% of intra-renal failure is caused by which of the following?
Answer
  • Acute tubular necrosis
  • Glomerulonephritis
  • Pyelonephritis
  • Nephrotic syndrome

Question 14

Question
Acute tubular necrosis (intra-renal failure) is caused by which of the following? Select all.
Answer
  • Prolonged renal ischemia from pre-renal failure
  • Exposure to nephrotoxic drugs
  • Intratubular obstruction (e.g. muscle trauma - release of myoglobin)
  • An immunologic disorder causing glomerular inflammation

Question 15

Question
Proteinuria and hematuria, two main symptoms of glomerulonephritis, are caused by what?
Answer
  • Entrapment in the glomerulus of antigen-antibody complexes produced in response to an infection
  • Prolonged renal ischemia from pre-renal failure
  • Nephrotoxic drugs, such as aminoglycoside antibiotics and radiologic contrast media
  • Baroreceptor-mediated activation of the sympathetic nervous system

Question 16

Question
Loss of transport proteins is part of the process of nephrotic syndrome. What is the result of this loss?
Answer
  • Decreased Vitamin D and thyroxine
  • Increased filtration of plasma proteins
  • Renal ischemia
  • Intratubular obstruction

Question 17

Question
Pyelonephritis is caused by which of the following?
Answer
  • Bacterial infection
  • Nephrotoxic drugs
  • Intratubular obstruction
  • Benign prostatic hyperplasia

Question 18

Question
Women and the elderly are at higher risk for which of the following?
Answer
  • Glomerulonephritis
  • Pyelonephritis
  • Acute tubular necrosis
  • Pre-renal failure

Question 19

Question
In which stage of acute renal failure would you expect to see the following: renal flow at 25% of normal, decreased O2 saturation, decreased urine output, and increased Na in urine?
Answer
  • Initiating stage
  • Oliguric-anuric stage
  • Diuretic stage
  • Recovery stage

Question 20

Question
Does increased urine output happen early or late in the process of acute renal failure?
Answer
  • Early
  • Late

Question 21

Question
Select all signs and symptoms of acute uremia.
Answer
  • Hypokalemia
  • Increased BUN
  • Pruritus
  • Potential anemia
  • Hyperventilation
  • Thrombosis

Question 22

Question
What are the leading causes of chronic renal failure?
Answer
  • Nephrotoxic drugs
  • Recurrent urinary tract infections
  • Diabetes
  • Hypertension
  • Glomerulonephritis

Question 23

Question
A patient presents with the following: mild anemia, increased BUN and serum creatinine, and nocturia. This patient is in which stage of chronic renal failure?
Answer
  • Reduced renal reserve
  • Renal insufficiency
  • Renal failure
  • ESRD

Question 24

Question
Hyperkalemia, hypernatremia, and hyperphosphatemia are all signs of which stage of chronic renal failure?
Answer
  • Reduced renal reserve
  • Renal insufficiency
  • Renal failure
  • ESRD

Question 25

Question
Renal osteodystrophies is a clinical manifestation of chronic renal failure. What is the cause of this manifestation?
Answer
  • Impaired vitamin D synthesis
  • Metabolic acidosis
  • Negative nitrogen balance due to high protein breakdown
  • Decreased platelet activity

Question 26

Question
Are thyroid hormones low or high in chronic kidney disease?
Answer
  • High
  • Low

Question 27

Question
Select all appropriate therapeutic interventions for a patient with chronic kidney disease.
Answer
  • Supplemental vitamin D
  • High potassium diet
  • ACE inhibitors
  • Dialysis

Question 28

Question
Which symptom is common throughout ALL stages of chronic kidney disease?
Answer
  • Hyperphosphatemia
  • Anemia
  • HTN
  • Hyperkalemia

Question 29

Question
Select all possible causes of decreased pH of the urine.
Answer
  • Diabetes
  • Starvation
  • UTI
  • Consumption of citrus

Question 30

Question
Select all possible causes of a decrease in specific gravity of the urine.
Answer
  • Renal failure
  • Pyelonephritis
  • Dehydration
  • UTI
  • Acute tubular necrosis
  • Excessive fluid intake

Question 31

Question
What are the normal values of urine pH?
Answer
  • 4.8-8.0
  • 4.0-6.0
  • 2.0-3.8
  • 6.0-9.0

Question 32

Question
What are the normal ranges of specific gravity of urine?
Answer
  • 4.8-8.0
  • 1.025-1.032
  • 1.0-2.0
  • 1.020-1.045

Question 33

Question
What is the normal range of BUN?
Answer
  • 10-20 mg/dL
  • 10-20 mg/mL
  • 15-30 mg/dL
  • 20-25 mg/mL

Question 34

Question
What is the normal range of creatinine clearance?
Answer
  • 0.7-1.5 mg/dL
  • 0.8-2.0 mg/dL
  • 0.7-1.0 mg/mL
  • 0.5-1.5 mg/mL

Question 35

Question
The rate of _____ clearance is directly proportional to the rate of filtration of water and solutes across the glomerular membrane.
Answer
  • Inulin
  • Creatinine
  • Urea
  • Sodium

Question 36

Question
The GFR is directly related to:
Answer
  • Perfusion pressure in the glomerular capillaries
  • Diffusion rate in the renal cortex
  • Diffusion rate in the renal medulla
  • Glomerular active transport

Question 37

Question
What force(s) creates passive transport of water in the proximal tubule?
Answer
  • Peritubular capillary hydrostatic pressure
  • Peritubular capillary oncotic and osmotic pressures
  • Interstitial hydrostatic pressure
  • Interstitial oncotic and osmotic pressures

Question 38

Question
______ is a hormone synthesized and secreted by the kidneys.
Answer
  • Erythropoietin
  • ADH
  • ANP
  • Aldosterone

Question 39

Question
A patient exhibits symptoms including hematuria with RBC casts and proteinuria exceeding 3-5 g/day, with albumin as the major protein. These data suggests the presence of which disorder?
Answer
  • Cystitis
  • Chronic pyelonephritis
  • Glomerulonephritis
  • Nephrotic syndrome

Question 40

Question
How are glucose and insulin used to treat hyperkalemia associated with acute renal failure?
Answer
  • Glucose has an osmotic effect, which attracts water and sodium, resulting in more dilute blood and a lower potassium concentration.
  • When insulin transports glucose into the cell, it also carries potassium with it.
  • Potassium attaches to receptors on the cell membrane of glucose and is carried into the cell.
  • Increasing insulin causes ketoacidosis, which causes potassium to move into the cell in exchange for hydrogen.
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