IBS Set 1 Quiz - DNA and Gene expression

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Question 1

Question
Adenine complementary pairs to what other bases in DNA and RNA?
Answer
  • Cytosine
  • Guanine
  • Thymine
  • Uracil

Question 2

Question
What direction does the coding strand run in?
Answer
  • 5' to 3'
  • 3' to 5'

Question 3

Question
What direction does the template strand run in?
Answer
  • 5' to 3'
  • 3' to 5'

Question 4

Question
What is the correct process of DNA replication?
Answer
  • DNA helicase unwinds -> SSBP -> Primase -> DNA polymerase builds new DNA strand in 5' to 3' -> exonuclease removes primers -> DNA polymerase fills the gaps -> DNA ligase fixes gap in sugar-phosphate backbone.
  • DNA helicase unwinds -> SSBP -> Primase -> DNA polymerase builds new DNA strand in 3' to 5' -> exonuclease removes primers -> DNA polymerase fills the gaps -> DNA ligase fixes gap in sugar-phosphate backbone.
  • DNA gyrase unwinds -> SSBP -> Primase -> DNA polymerase builds new DNA strand in 5' to 3' -> exonuclease removes primers -> DNA polymerase fills the gaps -> DNA ligase fixes gap in sugar-phosphate backbone.
  • DNA gyrase unwinds -> SSBP -> Primase -> DNA polymerase builds new DNA strand in 3' to 5' -> exonuclease removes primers -> DNA ligase fills the gaps -> DNA ligase fixes gap in sugar-phosphate backbone.

Question 5

Question
What is the function of Gyrase?
Answer
  • Prevent DNA supercoiling
  • Unwind the double stranded DNA
  • Remove RNA primers
  • Add DNA repeats to the 3' end of DNA strands in telomere regions (at the end of the chromosome)

Question 6

Question
What is the function of telomerase?
Answer
  • Add DNA repeats to the 3' end of DNA strands in telomere regions (at the end of the chromosome)
  • Prevents DNA supercoiling
  • Unwinds the DNA double strand
  • Remove RNA primers

Question 7

Question
Which type of RNA encodes the amino acid sequence of a polypeptide?
Answer
  • mRNA
  • rRNA
  • tRNA
  • snRNA

Question 8

Question
Which type of RNA forms a protein complex which aid in the formation of a spliceosome?
Answer
  • mRNA
  • snRNA
  • rRNA
  • tRNA

Question 9

Question
Which type of RNA is a component of the ribosome?
Answer
  • rRNA
  • mRNA
  • tRNA
  • snRNA

Question 10

Question
Which type of RNA is responsible for bringing amino acids to the ribosomes during translation?
Answer
  • tRNA
  • rRNA
  • mRNA
  • snRNA

Question 11

Question
What does label 1 show on the model of the gene?
Answer
  • Promoter
  • RNA coding sequence
  • Terminator

Question 12

Question
What does label 2 show on the model of the gene?
Answer
  • Promoter
  • RNA coding sequence
  • Terminator

Question 13

Question
What does label 3 show on the model of the gene?
Answer
  • Promoter
  • RNA coding sequence
  • Terminator

Question 14

Question
The process of transcription is what?
Answer
  • DNA Helicase unwinds -> Gyrase alleviates supercoiling -> RNA polymerase binds to the promoter and starts in 5' to 3' -> Terminator is reached -> pre-mRNA is cleaved off -> DNA helix is reformed.
  • DNA Helicase unwinds -> Telomerase alleviates supercoiling -> RNA polymerase binds to the promoter and starts in 5' to 3' -> Terminator is reached -> pre-mRNA is cleaved off -> DNA helix is reformed.
  • DNA Helicase unwinds -> Gyrase alleviates supercoiling -> RNA polymerase binds to the promoter and starts in 3' to 5' -> Terminator is reached -> pre-mRNA is cleaved off -> DNA helix is reformed.
  • DNA Helicase unwinds -> Telomerase alleviates supercoiling -> RNA polymerase binds to the promoter and starts in 3' to 5' -> Terminator is reached -> pre-mRNA is cleaved off -> DNA helix is reformed.

Question 15

Question
Splicing occurs in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic transcription.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 16

Question
Select the processes which occur in the nucleus
Answer
  • DNA replication
  • Transcription
  • Splicing
  • Translation

Question 17

Question
Select the process which occurs in the cytoplasm
Answer
  • DNA replication
  • Translation
  • Transcription
  • Splicing

Question 18

Question
The start codon on mRNA is always what set of bases?
Answer
  • ATG
  • TAC
  • AUG
  • AGU

Question 19

Question
The 40s subunit of an 80s ribosome contains the P and A site where the tRNA binds.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 20

Question
What is the process of amino acid charging?
Answer
  • AA attaches to amino-acyl tRNA synthetase -> ATP binds to docking site -> hydrolysed to AMP -> AMP exits -> tRNA becomes charged -> charged tRNA is released
  • AA attaches to amino-acyl tRNA synthetase -> ATP binds to docking site -> hydrolysed to ADP -> ADP exits -> tRNA becomes charged -> charged tRNA is released

Question 21

Question
What is the process of translation?
Answer
  • Methionine-tRNA's anticodon UAC binds to the AUG sequence on mRNA -> Ribosome clamps to mRNA strand -> Peptide bond formation via Peptidyl transferase -> continuation -> STOP codon is reached -> release factor binds (no tRNA with anticodon) -> peptidyl transferase causes final protein to be ejected -> machinery disassembles
  • Methionine-tRNA's anticodon AUG binds to the UAC sequence on mRNA -> Ribosome clamps to rRNA strand -> Peptide bond formation via Peptidyl transferase -> continuation -> STOP codon is reached -> release factor binds (no tRNA with anticodon) -> peptidyl transferase causes final protein to be ejected -> machinery disassembles
  • Methionine-tRNA's anticodon AUG binds to the UAC sequence on mRNA -> Ribosome clamps to mRNA strand -> Peptide bond formation via Peptidyl transferase -> continuation -> STOP codon is reached -> release factor binds (no tRNA with anticodon) -> peptidyl transferase causes final protein to be ejected -> machinery disassembles
  • Methionine-tRNA's anticodon UAC binds to the AUG sequence on mRNA -> Ribosome clamps to mRNA strand -> Peptide bond formation via aminoacyl transferase -> continuation -> STOP codon is reached -> release factor binds (no tRNA with anticodon) -> peptidyl transferase causes final protein to be ejected -> machinery disassembles

Question 22

Question
Convention is that polypeptides start with a C terminus and end with an N terminus.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 23

Question
Polysomes are advantageous because they mean mRNA, which is very unstable, can be translated into many proteins despite having a short life span.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 24

Question
What are the three generic types of DNA mutations?
Answer
  • Insertion
  • Substitution
  • Deletion
  • Rearrangement
  • Reorderment

Question 25

Question
What is meant by a silent mutation?
Answer
  • The same amino acid is coded for, because although the base is substituted for a different one, the codon still codes for the same amino acid due to the degenerate nature of the triplet code.
  • A different amino acid is coded for for that particular triplet but the protein itself still remains functional.
  • A premature STOP codon is coded for by the substitution which leads to a truncated,, non functional protein.

Question 26

Question
What is meant by a missense mutation?
Answer
  • The same amino acid is coded for, because although the base is substituted for a different one, the codon still codes for the same amino acid due to the degenerate nature of the triplet code.
  • A different amino acid is coded for for that particular triplet but the protein itself still remains functional.
  • A premature STOP codon is coded for by the substitution which leads to a truncated,, non functional protein.

Question 27

Question
What is meant by a nonsense mutation?
Answer
  • The same amino acid is coded for, because although the base is substituted for a different one, the codon still codes for the same amino acid due to the degenerate nature of the triplet code.
  • A different amino acid is coded for for that particular triplet but the protein itself still remains functional.
  • A premature STOP codon is coded for by the substitution which leads to a truncated,, non functional protein.

Question 28

Question
Deletion or insertion of 1,2,4 or 5 bases could cause a frameshift
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 29

Question
A frameshift can completely alter the primary structure of a protein.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 30

Question
Most intronic mutations are not detrimental to the final protein.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 31

Question
A missense mutation can produce a partially working protein.
Answer
  • True
  • False
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