IBS Set 5 Quiz - Genetics

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Genetics quiz
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Resource summary

Question 1

Question
What are promoter regions of DNA?
Answer
  • Gene regulatory elements that tell RNA polymerase to perform transcription.
  • Gene regulatory elements that tell DNA polymerase to perform transcription.
  • Gene regulatory elements that tell RNA polymerase to perform translation.
  • Gene regulatory elements that tell DNA polymerase to perform translation.

Question 2

Question
Transcription factors bind to regulatory sequences and cause what?
Answer
  • Recruitment of RNA polymerase
  • Recruit of DNA polymerase

Question 3

Question
What does the green question mark represent?
Answer
  • Nucleosome
  • Chromosome
  • Telomere
  • Promoter region

Question 4

Question
The green arrow is pointing to what?
Answer
  • Linker DNA
  • Core DNA

Question 5

Question
The nucleosome is made up of what components?
Answer
  • Histone octamer of H2A, H2B, H3 and H4.
  • Core DNA
  • Linker DNA
  • Histone tetramer of H2A, H2B, H3 and H4.

Question 6

Question
SRY is a transcription factor on the Y chromosome. It's absence/mutation leads to...?
Answer
  • Absence of the male phenotype, leading to production of a female phenotype.
  • Absence of the female phenotype, leading to production of the male phenotype.

Question 7

Question
The Y gene of the XY male genotype is gene-poor. What are two dosage compensation mechanisms that could help to equal gene expression levels in both males and females.
Answer
  • Upregulation of transcription of the X male chromosome
  • Inactivation of one of the X female chromosomes
  • Addition of an extra X chromosome in the male XY genotype

Question 8

Question
Epigenetics produces multiple phenotypes from the same genotype.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 9

Question
Diploid cells have a single copy of an allele.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 10

Question
Autosomal conditions are genetic conditions that occur on non-sex chromosomes.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 11

Question
An X-linked condition will only affect the phenotype of a female if the copies of the allele on each X chromosomes are abnormal.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 12

Question
Achondroplasia (dwarfism) is what type of condition?
Answer
  • Autosomal dominant
  • Autosomal recessive

Question 13

Question
Albinism is what type of condition?
Answer
  • Autosomal recessive
  • Autosomal dominant

Question 14

Question
How might a child have achondroplasia despite the parents not having it?
Answer
  • Parent(s) are carriers
  • Paternity (social father)
  • Mutation in sperm/egg

Question 15

Question
How can two parents that have albinism have a child without albinism?
Answer
  • Albinism is autosomal recessive. This means that any child born to parents who both have albinism should also have albinism as there are no dominant traits in the parents as their genotypes are both homozygous recessive. The reason for the absence of albinism is because the mutated copies in the parents could differ in that the fathers two copies could inhibit a different enzyme in the metabolic pathway that leads to lack of pigment than the mothers. The child will inherit one copy from the father and one copy from the mother and therefore only 50% of each originally fully mutated pathway is inhibited and thus may still be able to produce sufficient melanin.
  • Albinism is autosomal dominant. This means that any child born to parents who both have albinism should also have albinism as there are no dominant traits in the parents as their genotypes are both homozygous dominant. The reason for the absence of albinism is because the mutated copies in the parents could differ in that the fathers two copies could inhibit a different enzyme in the metabolic pathway that leads to lack of pigment than the mothers. The child will inherit one copy from the father and one copy from the mother and therefore only 50% of each originally fully mutated pathway is inhibited and thus may still be able to produce sufficient melanin.

Question 16

Question
Haemophilia results in blood clotting problems due to factor 7 deficiency.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 17

Question
Females are more likely to suffer from haemophilia
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 18

Question
Phenylketonuria is a disorder resulting from the production of phenylketones due to mutation in what enzyme?
Answer
  • Phenylalanine hydroxylase
  • Carbonic anhydrase
  • Phenylalanine anhydrase
  • Tyrosine hydroxylase

Question 19

Question
What are some causes of variation?
Answer
  • Selection pressure
  • Genetic drift
  • Founder effect
  • Bottleneck
  • Ethnic group selection (HbS)

Question 20

Question
How many pairs of autosomal chromosomes do most humans have?
Answer
  • 22
  • 1
  • 23
  • 46
  • 44

Question 21

Question
Mitosis is important for what?
Answer
  • Growth
  • Repair
  • Tumour growth
  • Spermatogenesis
  • Oogenesis

Question 22

Question
What is crossing over?
Answer
  • Exchange of genetic information between homologous pairs of chromosomes which produces recombinant chromosomes.
  • The random assortment (lining up) of chromosomes that end up in the gametes.

Question 23

Question
What is independent assortment?
Answer
  • Exchange of genetic information between homologous pairs of chromosomes which produces recombinant chromosomes.
  • The random assortment (lining up) of chromosomes that end up in the gametes.

Question 24

Question
When does independent assortment occur?
Answer
  • First meiotic division
  • Second meiotic division

Question 25

Question
Chromosomal non-disjunction describes the failure of homologous chromosomes to seperate in the first or second division in meiosis or during mitosis.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 26

Question
Chromosomal non-disjunction can lead to trisomy of sex chromosomes.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 27

Question
The following picture shows the process of meiosis in males
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 28

Question
The following picture shows chromosomal non-disjunction of the...
Answer
  • First division
  • Second division

Question 29

Question
The following picture shows chromosomal non-disjunction during female meiosis.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 30

Question
Meiotic non-disjunction occurs pre-embryonically and therefore all cells are effected.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 31

Question
Mitotic non-disjunction occurs during embryonic division so there may be a mix of normal and abnormal cells, resulting in an abnormal conceptus.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 32

Question
How does trisomy 21 (aka Down's) occur?
Answer
  • One copy of the mother's C21 translocates to C14. Upon fertilisation, the future child will have inherited two copies from the mother (due to the translocated C21 to C14 as well as the normal C21 copy) and a copy from the father, making 3 copies of C21.
  • The mother is a carrier of three C21 copies which leads to the child inheriting two copies of C21 from the mother and one from the father.
  • C14 changes into C21 upon fertilisation, therefore two copies are inherited from mother/father and one other copy from the father/mother.

Question 33

Question
Mutations are frequently due to...
Answer
  • Copying errors during DNA replication
  • Spontaneous depurination
  • Background ionising radiation
  • Chromosomal non-disjunction
  • Splicing errors

Question 34

Question
A transcriptional mutation commonly affects the promoter region of a gene, therefore promotion to initiate transcription does not occur and thus a protein is not produced.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 35

Question
A splice site mutation (deleted/creation of splice site) does not introduce introns into the mature mRNA transcript.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 36

Question
Common gene mutations are indicated in certain cancers.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 37

Question
What is the function of the mismatch repair machinery?
Answer
  • The mismatch repair machinery helps to repair slippaged DNA (insertion/deletions) that escapes proofreading
  • The mismatch repair machinery helps to destroy cancer cells
  • The mismatch repair machinery helps to repair incorrectly paired DNA strands

Question 38

Question
Sickle cell is caused by a substitution of hydrophilic valine for hydrophobic glutamate (GAG -> GTG)
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 39

Question
Cystic fibrosis is caused by deletion of a codon coding for a phenylalanine residue of the CFTR channel protein.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 40

Question
PCR are repeated cycles of...?
Answer
  • Primer, Polymerase, Denaturation.
  • Polymerase, Primer, Denaturation.
  • Denaturation, Polymerase, Primer.
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