IBS Set 2 Quiz - Cell proliferation and Fluid compartments

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Quiz by . ., updated more than 1 year ago
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Created by . . almost 6 years ago
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Resource summary

Question 1

Question
G1 describes what stage of the cell cycle?
Answer
  • Preparation for DNA synthesis
  • DNA synthesis
  • Proofreading of DNA synthesis
  • Mitosis

Question 2

Question
S phase describes what stage of the cell cycle?
Answer
  • Preparation for DNA synthesis
  • DNA synthesis
  • Proofreading of DNA synthesis
  • Mitosis

Question 3

Question
G2 describes what stage of the cell cycle?
Answer
  • Preparation for DNA synthesis
  • DNA synthesis
  • Proofreading of DNA synthesis
  • Mitosis

Question 4

Question
M phase describes what stage of the cell cycle?
Answer
  • Preparation for DNA synthesis
  • DNA synthesis
  • Proofreading of DNA synthesis
  • Mitosis

Question 5

Question
What is mitotic spindle composed of?
Answer
  • Microtubules
  • MTAP's
  • Intermediate filaments
  • Actin filaments
  • Centrioles

Question 6

Question
When does chromosome packaging occur?
Answer
  • In S phase after DNA replication
  • After S phase
  • In M phase
  • In G1

Question 7

Question
There are many histone genes that can make lots of histones to match the production of DNA during S phase.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 8

Question
What is the process of mitosis?
Answer
  • Prophase (microtubules disassemble and reassociate at centrioles) -> Metaphase (nuclear envelope breaks down and kinetochores develop and spindle fibres attach to them) -> Anaphase (chromosomes seperate and chromatids are pulled to opposite ends of the cell) -> Telophase (new nuclear envelope forms, condensed chromatin expands and nucleoli reappear).
  • Metaphase (nuclear envelope breaks down and kinetochores develop and spindle fibres attach to them) -> Prophase (microtubules disassemble and reassociate at centrioles) -> Anaphase (chromosomes seperate and chromatids are pulled to opposite ends of the cell) -> Telophase (new nuclear envelope forms, condensed chromatin expands and nucleoli reappear).

Question 9

Question
SPACER - CELL PROLIF 1,2,3 CONTINUE AFTER FLUID COMPARTMENTS
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 10

Question
What are the three main fluid compartments in the body?
Answer
  • Interstitial fluid
  • Blood plasma
  • Intracellular fluid
  • Intercellular fluid
  • Red blood cells

Question 11

Question
[K+] in interstitial fluid > [K+] in the intracellular fluid
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 12

Question
Osmolarity takes into the concentration of what two types of solutes?
Answer
  • Non-permeable
  • Permeable
  • Ionising
  • Suspending

Question 13

Question
In normal conditions the ICF and ECF tend to be in equilibrium at an osmolarity of around ~289mOsmol/L
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 14

Question
A 300Mm solution of glucose = A 300Mm solution of NaCl
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 15

Question
If there is not osmotic balance, how can the cell try to bring back balance?
Answer
  • Selective opening and closing of ion channels
  • Opening all the ion channels
  • Pumping water out via active transport pumps

Question 16

Question
Tonicity only considers which type of solute?
Answer
  • Non-permeable
  • Permeable
  • Ionising
  • Suspending

Question 17

Question
The osmotic pressure is dependent on the total concentration of all solutes.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 18

Question
The osmotic pressure is the pressure applied to prevent inward flow of water across a semi-permeable membrane.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 19

Question
With osmolarity problems, the permeable solute will move to concentrations of lower permeable solute. With tonicity problems, water will move to the area with the highest concentration of non-permeable solute.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 20

Question
A small change in the concentration of organic ions creates a small potential difference across the membrane.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 21

Question
If K+ leaves the cell, the negative charge created in the cell will attract the positive K+ back into the cell and therefore there is typically no net movement of ions.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 22

Question
Why is Goldmann's equation more useful than Nernst's?
Answer
  • Goldmann's equation takes into account all of the organic ions that are involved in the resting membrane potential and also their permeabilities whereas Nernst's only takes into account one type of ion and not the permeability.
  • Nernst's equation takes into account all of the organic ions that are involved in the resting membrane potential and also their permeabilities whereas Goldmann's only takes into account one type of ion and not the permeability.

Question 23

Question
Ions with a greater concentration outside of the cell always have a negative equilibrium potential.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 24

Question
Ions with a greater concentration inside the cell always have a negative equilibrium potential.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 25

Question
The RMP of a cell is closest to potassium because potassium is the most permeable ion. RMP is determined by the membranes high permeability to potassium.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 26

Question
Necrosis damages surrounding cells because of hydrolytic enzyme release from what organelle?
Answer
  • Lysosomes
  • Peroxisomes
  • Mitochondria
  • Golgi apparatus

Question 27

Question
Apoptosis is...?
Answer
  • Controlled cell death
  • Uncontrolled cell death

Question 28

Question
What is happening in the first stage of apoptosis?
Answer
  • The cell shrivels
  • The nucleus fragments
  • The plasma membrane breaks down
  • Cytochrome C is released from the mitochondria
  • Apoptotic bodies are produced and macrophages engulf them via phagocytosis

Question 29

Question
What is happening in the second stage of apoptosis?
Answer
  • The cell shrivels
  • The nucleus fragments
  • The plasma membrane breaks down
  • Cytochrome C is released from the mitochondria
  • Apoptotic bodies are produced and macrophages engulf them via phagocytosis

Question 30

Question
What is happening in the third stage of apoptosis?
Answer
  • The cell shrivels
  • The nucleus fragments
  • The plasma membrane breaks down
  • Cytochrome C is released from the mitochondria
  • Apoptotic bodies are produced and macrophages engulf them via phagocytosis

Question 31

Question
The ECM are basement membrane are needed for development of cells. Without these factors, the cell has a disorganised structure.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 32

Question
Why do burns victims not have a good prognosis?
Answer
  • The basement membrane is sometimes destroyed which contains stem cells. Absence of these stem cells means that cell proliferation cannot take place and thus skin doesn't regrow.
  • The cytoskeleton is sometimes destroyed which contains stem cells. Absence of these stem cells means that cell proliferation cannot take place and thus skin doesn't regrow.
  • The granular layer of epidermis is sometimes destroyed which contains stem cells. Absence of these stem cells means that cell proliferation cannot take place and thus skin doesn't regrow.

Question 33

Question
Integrins are heterodimeric receptors that are bound to ECM trigger active intracellular responses that impact on cell proliferation / attachments.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 34

Question
Various cell factors may tell the cell to do which of the following things?
Answer
  • Proliferate (Growth factors)
  • Become dormant (Survival factors)
  • Differentiate (Differentiation factors)
  • Undergo apoptosis (Death signal)
  • Necrotise (Necrotic factors)
  • Expand (Expansive factor)

Question 35

Question
Mitogenic growth factors have effect from the start of G1 until which stage of the cell cycle?
Answer
  • S phase
  • G1
  • G2
  • M
  • R point - 3/4 through G1

Question 36

Question
When growth factors bind to tyrosine kinase receptors, what happens intracellularly?
Answer
  • Tyr residues are phosphorylated which generates internal effects
  • Tyr residues are dephosphorylated which generates internal effects

Question 37

Question
Phosphorylation of Tyr residues produces intracellular effects
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 38

Question
Tyrosine phosphorylation is associated with cancer cell death.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 39

Question
Proteins recognise phosphorylated tyrosine domains. GDP is then substituted for GTP in RAS. Why is the hydrolysis of GTP important?
Answer
  • It terminates cell proliferation signals which prevents excessive cell proliferation.
  • GTP hydrolysis occurs in cancer and leads to excessive cell proliferation.

Question 40

Question
Without checkpoints that regulate the cell cycle, such as the role of TGF-b, loss of checkpoints occur and genomic instability and thus cell proliferation occurs.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 41

Question
Cyclin proteins increase the quantity of Cyclin dependent kinases.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 42

Question
Growth factors and Integrins result in Cyclin D production which helps to progress the cell through the cell cycle
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 43

Question
pRb is the guardian of S phase.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 44

Question
The function of CDK inhibitors such as p21 is to inhibit the cell cycle and prevent excessive cell proliferation (e.g. if damaged DNA is detected).
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 45

Question
If a CDK inhibitor is translocated from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, its inhibitory effect is stopped.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 46

Question
What are triggers for apoptosis to occur?
Answer
  • Breakages in DNA strands
  • Hypoxia
  • Unregulated growth factor signals
  • Hypercapnia
  • Hyperkalaemia

Question 47

Question
Which protein receives information about metabolic disorders and genetic damage within the cell and initiates repair (minor) or apoptosis (major)?
Answer
  • P53
  • pRb
  • P21

Question 48

Question
The intrinsic pathway that initiates apoptosis involves what signal that causes release of cytochrome c?
Answer
  • MOMP
  • MTAP
  • HAMP
  • IBAT

Question 49

Question
BCL-2 can keep Cytochrome C trapped in the mitochondria; prevent apoptosis.
Answer
  • True
  • False
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