Chapter 10 Ventilation (1-20)

matthew.anselmo
Quiz by , created about 4 years ago

Quiz on Chapter 10 Ventilation (1-20), created by matthew.anselmo on 09/09/2015.

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Created by matthew.anselmo about 4 years ago
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Question 1

Question
What is the primary function of the lungs?
Answer
  • convert angiotensin I to angiotensin II
  • filter pulmonary blood
  • gas exchange
  • remove carbon monoxide (CO)

Question 2

Question
During each cycle of normal resting ventilation, a volume of gas is moved into and out of the respiratory tract. This cyclical volume is called the:
Answer
  • residual volume (RV)
  • tidal volume (VT)
  • inspiratory reserve volume (IRV)
  • vital capacity (VC)

Question 3

Question
Which of the following pressures vary throughout the normal breathing cycle?
Answer
  • pleural pressure (Ppl
  • mouth pressure (Pao)
  • body surface pressure (Pbs)
  • alveolar pressure (Palv)

Question 4

Question
Which of the following pressures normally remains negative (relative to atmospheric pressure) during quiet breathing?
Answer
  • Pbs
  • Pao
  • Ppl
  • Palv

Question 5

Question
Which of the following pressure gradients is responsible for the actual flow of gas into and out of the lungs during breathing?
Answer
  • transthoracic pressure gradient (Ppl – Pbs)
  • transrespiratory pressure gradient (Palv – Pao)
  • transpulmonary pressure gradient (Palv – Ppl)
  • transcanadian pressure gradient (Ppc – Pks)

Question 6

Question
Which of the following pressure gradients is responsible for maintaining alveolar inflation?
Answer
  • transrespiratory pressure gradient (Palv – Pao)
  • transcanadian pressure gradient (Pca – Pks)
  • transthoracic pressure gradient (Ppl –Pbs)
  • transpulmonary pressure gradient (Palv – Ppl)

Question 7

Question
Which of the following statements about alveolar pressure (Palv) during normal quiet breathing is true?
Answer
  • It always remains less than atmospheric pressure.
  • It is negative during inspiration and positive during expiration.
  • It is the same as intrapleural pressure (Ppl).
  • It is positive during inspiration and negative during expiration.

Question 8

Question
What happens during normal inspiration?
Answer
  • Palv drops below that at the airway opening.
  • The transpulmonary pressure gradient widens.
  • The Ppl decreases further below atmospheric.

Question 9

Question
During normal tidal ventilation, the transpulmonary pressure gradient (Palv – Ppl) reaches its maximum value at what point in the cycle?
Answer
  • mid-expiration
  • end-inspiration
  • end-expiration
  • mid-inspiration

Question 10

Question
During expiration, why does gas flow out from the lungs to the atmosphere?
Answer
  • Airway pressure is greater than Palv.
  • Palv is greater than at the airway opening.
  • Palv is the same as at the airway opening
  • Palv is less than at the airway opening.

Question 11

Question
What forces must be overcome to move air into the respiratory system?
Answer
  • surface tension forces
  • airway resistance
  • elastic forces of lung tissue
  • tissue movement

Question 12

Question
What term is used to note the difference between inspiratory lung volume and expiratory lung volume at any given pressure?
Answer
  • transpulmonary pressures
  • pleural pressure variance
  • hysteresis
  • alveolar aphasia

Question 13

Question
What is the effect of surface tension forces in the air-filled lung?
Answer
  • It decreases the lung's elasticity as volume increases
  • It makes the lung harder to inflate than if it were filled with fluid
  • It increases the elastic recoil of the lung (promoting collapse).

Question 14

Question
The presence of surfactant in the alveoli tends to do which of the following?
Answer
  • increase resistance
  • increase elastance
  • decrease surface tension
  • decrease compliance

Question 15

Question
How is compliance computed?
Answer
  • change in volume/change in pressure
  • change in volume/change in flow
  • change in pressure/change in volume
  • change in pressure/change in flow

Question 16

Question
Normal lung compliance is approximately which of the following?
Answer
  • 10.00 L/cm H2O
  • 2.00 L/cm H2O
  • 0.20 L/cm H2O
  • 0.01 L/cm H2O

Question 17

Question
A lung that loses elastic fibers (as in emphysema) would exhibit which of the following characteristics?
Answer
  • increased pulmonary compliance
  • increased airway resistance
  • decreased pulmonary vascular resistance
  • decreased airways resistance

Question 18

Question
A fibrotic lung would exhibit which of the following characteristics?
Answer
  • decreased surface tension
  • decreased PVR
  • decreased lung compliance
  • decreased airway resistance

Question 19

Question
What occurs at a lung volume equivalent to the functional residual capacity (FRC)?
Answer
  • Opposing chest-wall-lung forces generate negative Ppl.
  • Chest wall expansion is offset by lung contraction.
  • The forces of the chest wall and lungs are in balance.

Question 20

Question
At approximately what point during a maximum inspiration does the chest wall reach its natural resting level?
Answer
  • about 90% of the VC
  • about 70% of the VC
  • about 40% of the total lung capacity (TLC)
  • about 30% of the VC