AP Biology Chapters 4 and 5

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Created by mcarpent6140 over 5 years ago
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Chapter 4 and 5 study guide

Resource summary

Question 1

Question
Shown here are the structures of fructose and glucose. These two molecules are
Answer
  • geometric isotopes
  • enantiomers
  • geometric isomers
  • structural isomers
  • nonisotopic isomers

Question 2

Question
Which of the following statements correctly describes geometric isomers?
Answer
  • They have variations in arrangement around a double bond
  • They have an asymmetric carbon that makes them mirror images
  • They have the same chemical properties
  • They have different molecular formulas
  • Their atoms and bonds are arranged in different sequences

Question 3

Question
Research indicates the Ibuprofen, a drug used to relieve inflammation and pain, is a mixture of two enantiomers; that is, molecules that
Answer
  • have identical three-dimensional shapes
  • are mirror images of one another
  • lack an asymmetric carbon
  • differ in the location of their double bonds
  • differ in electrical charge

Question 4

Question
Research indicates that Albuterol, a drug used to relax bronchial muscles, improving airflow and thus offering relief from asthma, consists only of one enantiomer, the R- form. Why is it important for this drug to consist of only one enantiomer form, rather than a mixture of enantiomers?
Answer
  • Different enantiomers may have different or opposite physiological effects
  • It is impossible to synthesize mixtures of enantiomers
  • It is much less expensive to synthesize one enantiomer at a time
  • Albuterol is an example of a compound for which only one enantiomer exists
  • Only the R-form of Albuterol has been studied; until more information is available, physicians prefer to use the pure R- form.

Question 5

Question
Which of the following is TRUE of both starch and cellulose?
Answer
  • They are both polymers of glucose
  • They are geometric isomers of each other.
  • They can both be digested by humans
  • They are both used for energy storage in plants
  • They are both structural components of the cell wall

Question 6

Question
Which of the following is true of cellulose?
Answer
  • It is a polymer composed of sucrose monomers
  • It is a storage polysaccharide for energy in plant cells
  • It is a storage polysaccharide for energy in animal cells
  • It is a major structural component of plant cell walls
  • It is a major structural component of animal cell plasma membranes.

Question 7

Question
Humans can digest starch but not cellulose because
Answer
  • the monomer of of starch is glucose, while the monomer of cellulose is galactose
  • human has enzymes that can hydrolyze the beta glycosidic linkages of starch but no the alpha glycosidic linkages of cellulose
  • Humans have enzymes that can hydrolyzes the alpha glycosidic linkages of starch but not the beta glycosidic linkages of cellulose
  • humans harbor starch-digesting bacteria in the digestive tract
  • the monomer of starch is glucose, while the monomer of cellulose is maltose

Question 8

Question
All of the following statements concerning saturated fats are true except
Answer
  • They are more common in animals than in plants
  • They have multiple double bonds in the carbon chains of their fatty acids
  • They generally solidify at room temperature
  • They contain more hydrogen than unsaturated fats having the same number of carbon atoms
  • They are one of several factors that contribute to atherosclerosis.

Question 9

Question
The R group or side chain of the amino acid serine is -CH2 -OH. The R group or side chain of the amino acid alanine is -CH3. Where would you expect to find these amino acids in a globular protein in aqueous solution?
Answer
  • Serine would be in the interior, and alanine would be on the exterior of the globular protein.
  • Alanine would be in the interior, and serine would be on the exterior of the globular protein.
  • Both serine and alanine would be on the interior of the globular protein.
  • Both serine and alanine would be on the exterior of the globular protein.
  • Both serine and alanine would be in the interior and exterior of the globular protein.

Question 10

Question
If one strand of a DNA molecule has the sequence of bases 5' ATTGCA3' the other complementary strand would have the sequence
Answer
  • 5'TAACGT3'
  • 3' TAACGT5'
  • 5' UAACGU 3'
  • 3'UAACGU5'
  • 5'UGCAAU3'

Question 11

Question
Why are human sex hormones considered to be lipids?
Answer
  • They are essential components of cell membranes.
  • They are steroids, which are not soluble in water.
  • They are made of fatty acids
  • They are hydrophilic compounds
  • They contribute to atherosclerosis

Question 12

Question
If 2 molecules of the general type showing in this figure were linked together carbon 1 of one molecule to carbon 4 of the other, the single molecule that would result would be
Answer
  • maltose
  • fructose
  • glucose
  • galactose
  • sucrose

Question 13

Question
What maintains the secondary structure of a protein?
Answer
  • peptide bonds
  • hydrogen bonds
  • disulfide bonds
  • ionic bonds
  • phosphodiester bonds

Question 14

Question
Which of the following statements is true regarding the molecule illustrated in this picture?
Answer
  • It is a saturated fatty acid.
  • A diet rich in this molecule may contribute to atherosclerosis
  • Molecules of this type are usually liquid at room temperature.
  • A and B only
  • A, B, and C

Question 15

Question
All of the following statements concerning saturated fats are true except
Answer
  • they are more common in animals than in plants
  • they have have multiple double bonds in the carbon
  • they generally solidify at room temperature
  • they contain moe hydrogen than unsaturated fats having the same number of carbon atoms
  • they are one of several factors that contribute the atherosclerosis
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