A&P Exam 4

Quiz by tlcorbett, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by tlcorbett over 5 years ago


A&P Exam 4

Resource summary

Question 1

Upon digestion amino acids and monosaccharides are brought to the liver by the [blank_start]mesenteric vein[blank_end], which will merge into the [blank_start]hepatic portal[blank_end] vein. Chylomicrons are secreted into the [blank_start]lacteals[blank_end], which are a part of the lymphatic system. Lymph vessels (and their chylomicron rich content) will be emptied into the subclavian veins.
  • mesenteric vein
  • hepatic portal
  • lacteals

Question 2

Volatile fatty acids are short chained carbons typically produced by bacterial fermentation. The 3 main VFAs are: 1. [blank_start]acetic acid[blank_end] 2. [blank_start]butyric acid[blank_end] 3. [blank_start]propionic acid[blank_end]
  • acetic acid
  • butyric acid
  • propionic acid

Question 3

There are [blank_start]20[blank_end] amino acids that make the proteins of the body. An amino acid that is [blank_start]essential[blank_end] must be [blank_start]consumed[blank_end] in the diet. Conditionally or [blank_start]pseudoessential[blank_end] amino acids are only essential in certain conditions (age, health status) or can only be made out of essential amino acids. An example of a conditional EAA is [blank_start]arginine[blank_end] in human infants and chicks.
  • 20
  • essential
  • consumed
  • pseudoessential
  • arginine

Question 4

[blank_start]Scurvy[blank_end] is the disease that you will develop if you don't consume enough [blank_start]Vitamin C (ascorbic acid)[blank_end] - another essential nutrient for humans.
  • Scurvy
  • Vitamin C (ascorbic acid)

Question 5

[blank_start]ATP (adenosine triphosphate)[blank_end] is the universal energy carrier and it is generated by the degradation of metabolic fuels: 1. [blank_start]glucose[blank_end] is the preferred method and the only method available in all tissues. 2. [blank_start]fatty acids[blank_end] through beta oxidation of [blank_start]fatty acids[blank_end]; used in some tissues (e.g. muscles at rest) but can't be used in the brain 3. [blank_start]ketone bodies[blank_end] - they are made out of FAs by the liver and distributed through the body via the blood supply. This is not ideal as too much of it creates acidosis and the brain does not like to use it 4. [blank_start]amino acids[blank_end] - pathological (starvation or diabetes)
  • ATP (adenosine triphosphate)
  • glucose
  • fatty acids
  • fatty acids
  • ketone bodies
  • amino acids

Question 6

[blank_start]Eukaryotic[blank_end] produces lactate. This is what we do when we are in anaerobic conditions and need energy at a rapid pace. This is also called anaerobic glycolysis. [blank_start]Prokaryotic[blank_end] produces ethanol and CO2. This is what occurs in the rumen of the ruminants.
  • Eukaryotic
  • Prokaryotic

Question 7

[blank_start]Hormonal responses[blank_end] and the [blank_start]autonomic nervous system[blank_end] are responsible for the coordination of all organs involved for digestion.
  • Hormonal responses
  • autonomic nervous system

Question 8

[blank_start]Endopeptidase[blank_end] digests proteins by cutting the link between amino acids anywhere in the chain. [blank_start]Exopeptidase[blank_end] removes terminal amino acids, cutting off a single amino acid at a time. The results of the digestion by these enzymes are either [blank_start]oligopeptides[blank_end] which are short peptide chains or even single amino acids.
  • Endopeptidase
  • Exopeptidase
  • oligopeptides

Question 9

Protein digestion starts in the [blank_start]stomach[blank_end] thanks to [blank_start]pepsin[blank_end] but happens mainly in the [blank_start]duodenum and jejunum[blank_end] thanks to the enzymes secreted by the [blank_start]pancreas[blank_end] and the ones found on the cytoplasmic membrane of [blank_start]enterocytes[blank_end].
  • stomach
  • pepsin
  • duodenum and jejunum
  • pancreas
  • enterocytes

Question 10

Carbohydrate digestion starts in the [blank_start]mouth[blank_end] thanks to [blank_start]amylase[blank_end] secreted by the [blank_start]salivary glands[blank_end]. However, it happens mainly in the [blank_start]duodenum and jejunum[blank_end] where, thanks to the pancreatic [blank_start]amylase[blank_end], starches are glycogen are digested. Cellulose on the other hand, is digested by microorganisms through a process called [blank_start]fermentation[blank_end], which happens in a special compartment that can change depending on the species. For example, in ruminants, this process occurs mainly in the [blank_start]rumen[blank_end] and in horses, it occurs in the [blank_start]cecum[blank_end] and the [blank_start]colon[blank_end].
  • mouth
  • amylase
  • salivary glands
  • duodenum and jejunum
  • amylase
  • fermentation
  • rumen
  • cecum
  • colon

Question 11

Label the following diagram/flowchart.
  • glycolysis
  • Kreb's cycle (citric acid cycle)
  • oxidative phosphorylation (ETC)
  • glucose
  • ADP
  • ATP
  • O2
  • H2O
  • acetyl CoA
  • CO2
  • FAD/NAD+
  • ATP also
  • ADP also
  • ADP too
  • ATP as well

Question 12

Label the following diagram/flowchart.
  • anaerobic glycolysis
  • glucose
  • gluclose also
  • lactate
  • lactate also
  • glycogenesis
  • other
  • ADP
  • ATP
  • glyconeogenesis
  • liver
  • blood
  • muscle

Question 13

Fill in the following flowchart describing the pathway of deoxygenated blood through the heart.
  • superior and inferior vena cava
  • right atrium
  • tricupsid valve
  • right ventricle
  • pulmonary artery
  • left ventricle
  • lungs
  • pulmonary vein
  • left atrium
  • mitral valve (bicupsid valve)
  • left ventricle again
  • aortic valve
  • aorta
  • body
  • via
  • left subclavian artery
  • left common carotid artery
  • brachiocephalic trunk

Question 14

Label the diagram/flowchart of creatine phosphate showing what happens at rest and during intense activity.
  • creatine
  • glycolysis uses ATP to make creatin/ADP
  • intense activity
  • at rest
  • Pi
  • creatin
  • ATP
  • ADP + Pi
  • ADP + Pi also
  • ATP also

Question 15

Label the following diagram/flowchart showing the metabolic pathways that lead to ketogenesis.
  • fatty acid
  • beta oxidation
  • acetyl CoA
  • ketogenesis
  • acetoacetate
  • beta hydroxy-butarate
  • CO2
  • acetone
  • acetone = ketone body

Question 16

Label the following diagram/flowchart for the gastro-duodenal feedback loop.
  • food in stomach
  • fundus contracts to keep excess storage
  • arrives at antrum
  • activates secretion of gastrin by G cell
  • HCl by parietal cells
  • pepsinogen by chief cells
  • peristalsis for mixing
  • chemical digestion
  • enzymatic digestion of proteins
  • bolus becomes chyme
  • pylorus opens/chyme arrives at duodenum
  • secretion of
  • GIP
  • CCK
  • secretin
  • fundus relaxes/- HCl/pylorus closes
  • induces production of pancreatic juices
  • HCO3- buffers chyme
  • enzymes digest proteins, carbs, lipids
  • increases bile by liver from gallbladder
  • emulsification of lipids

Question 17

Label the following diagram of the heart.
  • aorta/aortic arch
  • right atrium
  • left atrium
  • right ventricle
  • left ventricle
  • inferior vena cava
  • superior vena cava
  • septum
  • right pulmonary artery
  • right pulmonary veins
  • tricuspid valve
  • mitral/bicuspid valve
  • apex
  • semilunar valves
  • left pulmonary artery
  • left pulmonary veins
  • chordae tendinae
  • brachiocephalic artery
  • left common carotid artery
  • left subclavian artery
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