In the perception process, _____ is the process of noticing or becoming aware of particular stimuli.
_____ is the tendency to notice and accept objects and information consistent with our values, beliefs, and expectations, while ignoring or screening out inconsistent information.
Fundamental attribution error
_____ states that we all have a basic need to understand and explain the causes of other people's behavior.
Theory of empathetic reinforcement
Principle of consideration
Behavioral reflection principle
Lopez was injured at work when he slips and falls at a construction site. However, his coworkers assumed the accident was due to improper flooring. According to attribution theory, Lopez's coworkers interpreted the incident with a _____.
proactive perceptual error
reactive perception error
fundamental attribution error
According to attribution theory, _____ makes managers more likely to attribute workers' problems or failures to internal rather than external causes.
the defensive bias
the self-serving attribution bias
the fundamental attribution error
When things go wrong in the workplace, workers are more likely to attribute their problems to _____, while managers are more likely to attribute those same workers' problems to _____.
external causes; internal causes
the fundamental attribution error; the defensive bias
internal causes; external causes
extrinsic reinforcers; intrinsic reinforcers
intrinsic reinforcers; extrinsic reinforcers
In the communication process, _____ makes senders aware of possible miscommunications and enables them to continue communicating until the receiver understands the intended message.
Andrea works for a finance company. She receives a complex message that she is unable to decode correctly. This situation is an example of _____ interfering with the transmission of a message.
The _____ communication channel is the system of official channels that carry organizationally approved messages and information.
The three formal communication channels in organizations are categorized as _____.
hierarchical, functional, and organizational
downward, horizontal, and upward
vertical, horizontal, and dyadic
upward, dyadic, and downward
horizontal, vertical, and grapevine
The two primary types of grapevine communication networks are _____ chains
upward and downward
cluster and gossip
focus and scramble
diagonal and horizontal
linear and circular
In a grapevine communication network, a _____ involves one highly connected individual sharing information with many other managers and workers.
Organizational grapevines can be managed by:
the management withholding information.
rewarding employees when they circulate rumors in the company.
keeping employees informed about changing strategies and policies
giving incorrect information to the employees
punishing those who share information with other employees.
_____ is a type of one-on-one communication used by managers to improve an employee's on-the-job performance or behavior.
In nonverbal communication, the term _____ refer to movements of the body and face.
In nonverbal communication, _____ includes the pitch, rate, tone, volume, and speaking pattern (i.e., use of silences, pauses, or hesitations) of one's voice.
Which of the following is one of the primary tasks faced by managers who want to improve communication?
Controlling organization-wide kinesics
Maintaining vertical communication channels
Managing small group communication
Managing organization-wide communication
Eliminating informal communication channels
Which of the following statements about hearing and listening is true?
Listening is a passive action, while hearing is an active action
Hearing is perception of sounds, while listening is making a conscious effort to hear.
Listening is an involuntary behavior, and hearing is a voluntary behavior.
Both hearing and listening require paralanguage for the communication process to occur.
Hearing and listening are synonymous with each other
_____ is a technique of understanding a speaker's perspective and personal frame of reference and giving feedback that conveys that understanding to the speaker.
_____ is feedback that is intended to be helpful, corrective, and/or encouraging and is aimed at correcting performance deficiencies and motivating employees.
Organizational silence occurs when _____.
an organization is going to engage in a leveraged buyout
employees believe that telling managers about problems will not make a difference
employees are encouraged to discuss company issues with the news media
an organization refuses to answer customer complaints
managers shut down all efforts to conduct grapevine communications in the organization