Antibiotics are drugs that kills [blank_start]bacteria[blank_end] and are used to treat bacterial [blank_start]infections[blank_end]. They work by inhibiting key biochemical processes in bacteria such as protein [blank_start]synthesis[blank_end].
We are now threatened by infections with bacteria that are [blank_start]resistant[blank_end] to antibiotics. The biggest problem is the evolution of bacteria that are [blank_start]resistant[blank_end] to [blank_start]multiple classes[blank_end] of antibiotics, as these have very few treatment options.
On the image below, are the bacteria around the antibiotic discs susceptible or resistant?
Antibiotic resistance can occur by mutations to chromosomal DNA or by acquisition of antibiotic resistance genes by [blank_start]horizontal[blank_end] [blank_start]gene[blank_end] [blank_start]transfer[blank_end]. When we use antibiotics to kill populations of bacteria, all of the susceptible cells will be [blank_start]killed[blank_end], allowing the resistant cells to [blank_start]multiply.[blank_end]
Improper and widespread use of antibiotics speeds up the [blank_start]spread[blank_end] of antibiotic resistance. Some examples of improper use include: subscribing antibiotics for infections caused by [blank_start]viruses[blank_end], and use in [blank_start]livestock[blank_end] such as cows to speed up their growth.