Final prep 2

Kegen Sullivan
Quiz by , created almost 4 years ago

test questions from tests 3 & 4

27
0
0
Kegen Sullivan
Created by Kegen Sullivan almost 4 years ago
Enzymes and Respiration
I Turner
Biology AQA 3.1.3 Osmosis and Diffusion
evie.daines
Biology AQA 3.2.5 Mitosis
evie.daines
PE - GCSE Glossary
rjapmann
Computer science quiz
Ryan Barton
Renal System A&P
Kirsty Jayne Buckley
Biology- Genes, Chromosomes and DNA
Laura Perry
Using GoConqr to study science
Sarah Egan
Biology AQA 3.1.3 Cells
evie.daines

Question 1

Question
The supporting cells in the central nervous system phagocytize bacterial cells and cellular debris are:
Answer
  • microglial
  • oligodendrocytes
  • astrocytes
  • ependymal

Question 2

Question
The supporting cells in the central nervous system that provide insulating layers of myelin around axons in the brain and spinal cord are:
Answer
  • microglial
  • oligodendocytes
  • astrocytes
  • ependymal

Question 3

Question
The space between a presynaptic neuron and a postsynaptic neuron is called the __________, and a substance called ______________ is released.
Answer
  • dendrites, action potential
  • axon terminal, neurotransmitter
  • synaptic cleft, neurotransmitter
  • cell body, action potential

Question 4

Question
During depolarization ____________ channels open, _________ the membrane potential.
Answer
  • potassium, decreasing
  • potassium, increasing
  • sodium, increasing
  • sodium, decreasing

Question 5

Question
During repolarization, _________________ channels open, ___________________ the membrane potential.
Answer
  • potassium, decreasing
  • potassium, increasing
  • sodium, increasing
  • sodium, decreasing

Question 6

Question
Which of these statements about action potentials is FALSE?
Answer
  • It is an all-or-none response
  • a local current is produced that stimulates adjacent portions of the axon membrane (a wave)
  • normal resting membrane potential of a neuron is -70 mV
  • these are all true

Question 7

Question
Which of these fibers has the fastest nerve conduction?
Answer
  • a thick myelinated axon
  • a thick unmyelinated axon
  • a thin myelinated axon
  • a thing unmyelinated axon

Question 8

Question
Which of these neurotransmitters is responsible for skeletal muscle contraction?
Answer
  • histamine
  • GABA
  • acetylcholine
  • norepinephrine

Question 9

Question
Which of these neurotransmitters is responsible for pain perception?
Answer
  • nitric oxide
  • substance P
  • dopamine
  • acetylcholine

Question 10

Question
Which type of nerve fibers conducts impulses to an effector organ?
Answer
  • efferent
  • afferent
  • interneurons

Question 11

Question
Which of these is the innermost layer of meninges?
Answer
  • pia mater
  • dura mater
  • arachnoid mater

Question 12

Question
This part of the neuron is the receptive region; receiving input:
Answer
  • axon
  • cell body
  • dendrites
  • axonal hillock

Question 13

Question
This part of the brain is responsible for higher brain functions such as interpreting sensory impulses and initiating voluntary muscular movements:
Answer
  • reticular activating system
  • cerebellum
  • diencephalon
  • cerebrum

Question 14

Question
This part of the brain regulates heart rate, arterial blood pressure, body temperature, water and electrolyte balance, control of hunger and body weight, among others:
Answer
  • hypothalamus
  • thalamus
  • basal nuceli
  • medulla oblongata

Question 15

Question
This part of the brain contains centers to control vital visceral activities:
Answer
  • cerebellum
  • midbrain
  • medulla oblongata
  • cerebrum

Question 16

Question
This part of the brain is affected by anesthesia, resulting in unconsciousness:
Answer
  • reticular activating system
  • cerebrum
  • hypothalamus
  • limbic system

Question 17

Question
This part of the brain is responsible for integrating sensory information concerning the position of body parts and for coordinating complex skeletal muscle movements:
Answer
  • thalamus
  • medulla oblongata
  • pons
  • cerebellum

Question 18

Question
The basal nuclei (basal ganglia) are responsible for:
Answer
  • sleep and wakefullness
  • facilitating voluntary movement
  • synthesizing cerebral spinal fluid
  • interpret impulses from sensory receptors

Question 19

Question
The dorsal root of a spinal nerve contains:
Answer
  • cell bodies of sensory neurons
  • cell bodies of motor neurons
  • axons from motor neurons
  • axons from sensory neurons

Question 20

Question
The ventral root of a spinal nerve contains:
Answer
  • cell bodies of a sensory neurons
  • cell bodies of motor neurons
  • axons from motor neurons
  • axons from sensory neurons

Question 21

Question
Which plexus innervates the muscles of the legs?
Answer
  • cervical
  • brachial
  • lumbosacral

Question 22

Question
Which of these is NOT part of the sympathetic response?
Answer
  • increased heart rate
  • increased force of contraction of the heart
  • dilation of bronchioles in the lung
  • these are all correct

Question 23

Question
Which of these is NOT part of the parasympathetic response?
Answer
  • decreased heart rate
  • contraction of urinary bladder
  • increased intestinal wall activity
  • these are all correct

Question 24

Question
A short preganglionic fiber, a long postganglionic fiber, and the secretion of norepinephrine onto the effector organ are all characteristic of:
Answer
  • sympathetic fibers
  • parasympathetic fibers

Question 25

Question
A long preganglionic fiber, a short postganglionic fiber, and the release of acetylcholine are all characteristic of:
Answer
  • sympathetic fibers
  • parasympathetic fibers

Question 26

Question
Which of these hormones acts by binding to receptor molecules on the target cell and activating a second messenger system?
Answer
  • testosterone
  • thyroid hormone
  • aldosterone
  • estrogen

Question 27

Question
Which of these hormones is not released by the posterior pituitary gland?
Answer
  • thyroid-stimulating hormone
  • adrenocorticotropic hormone
  • oxytocin
  • A and B

Question 28

Question
Which hormone of the anterior pituitary causes cells to enlarge and divide more frequently?
Answer
  • prolactin
  • ACTH
  • growth hormone
  • thyroid-stimulating hormone

Question 29

Question
Which of these statements about the posterior pituitary is FALSE?
Answer
  • the posterior pituitary stores hormones made in the hypothalamus
  • the posterior pituitary responds to impulses from the hypothalamus to release hormones into the blood
  • ADH and oxytocin are the only hormones stored in the posterior pituitary
  • the posterior pituitary responds to releasing or inhibiting hormones from the hypothalamus

Question 30

Question
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) causes:
Answer
  • the anterior pituitary to secrete ACTH
  • the anterior pituitary to secrete TSH
  • the anterior pituitary to secrete GH
  • the posterior pituitary to secrete ACTH

Question 31

Question
ADH acts on the _______________ to reabsorb water.
Answer
  • large intestine
  • bone
  • kidneys
  • livers

Question 32

Question
Which hormone(s) does the adrenal medulla secrete?
Answer
  • epinephrine
  • norepinephrine
  • cortisol
  • A and B

Question 33

Question
What is the function of aldosterone?
Answer
  • reabsorb water
  • increase blood calcium levels
  • increase blood glucose levels
  • reabsorb sodium and water

Question 34

Question
Which of these is NOT a function of cortisol?
Answer
  • increase blood levels of amino acids
  • increase utilization of fatty acids as an energy source
  • stimulation of liver to make glucose from non-carbohydrate sources (gluconeogenesis)
  • decrease blood glucose concentrations

Question 35

Question
Which of these is NOT a function of insulin?
Answer
  • promotes movement of glucose into certain cells
  • stimulates formation of glycogen from glucose
  • stimulates liver cells to break down glycogen into glucose

Question 36

Question
The pineal gland secretes:
Answer
  • progesterone
  • aldosterone
  • melatonin
  • glucagon

Question 37

Question
Which of these is NOT a response to stress?
Answer
  • The hypothalamus triggers sympathetic impulses to various organs
  • Epinephrine is released from sympathetic fibers
  • ACTH is released from the anterior pituitary
  • Cortisol is released
  • These are all correct

Question 38

Question
Most of the formed elements in a blood sample are:
Answer
  • platelets
  • plasma
  • erythrocytes
  • leukocytes

Question 39

Question
A deficiency in red blood cells or a reduction in the amount of hemoglobin results in a condition called:
Answer
  • leukopenia
  • anemia
  • jaundice
  • arrhythmia

Question 40

Question
You just landed in Colorado. You feel a little dizzy because of the higher altitude and lower pressure of oxygen in the atmosphere. Which hormone will your kidneys release?
Answer
  • erythropoietin
  • colony-stimulating factors
  • ADH
  • Glucagon

Question 41

Question
This plasma protein isn't used as fuel, but it's used to maintain the osmotic pressure of plasma:
Answer
  • fibrinogen
  • albumin
  • gamma globulin
  • beta globulin

Question 42

Question
Which of these is NOT contained in plasma?
Answer
  • glucose
  • electrolytes
  • amino acids
  • These are all in plasma

Question 43

Question
You go to the doctor because you've been sick the past week. The doctor orders a differential white blood cell count. What does this test tell you?
Answer
  • the total number of white blood cells
  • the percentages of the various types of leukocytes in a blood sample
  • the percentage of red blood cells
  • the percentage of hemoglobin

Question 44

Question
A type B person receives type A blood, what happens?
Answer
  • nothing, that person will be fine
  • agglutination
  • fever
  • anemia

Question 45

Question
A type AB person can receive:
Answer
  • type A blood
  • type B blood
  • type O blood
  • all of the above

Question 46

Question
A type O person can receive:
Answer
  • type A blood
  • type B blood
  • type O blood
  • all of the above

Question 47

Question
An Rh- negative woman conceives an Rh- negative fetus, what happens?
Answer
  • nothing, the woman and fetus are fine since they do not have the Rh antigen
  • the woman will make antibodies against the Rh-negative blood cells during the pregnancy
  • the woman will make antibodies against the Rh-negative blood cells after the birth
  • the woman will need to receive an injection of RhoGAM

Question 48

Question
The thick middle layer of the heart that consists of cardiac muscle tissue is the:
Answer
  • pericardium
  • endocardium
  • myocardium
  • epicardium

Question 49

Question
The heart valve between the right atrium and right ventricle is the:
Answer
  • tricuspid valve
  • bicuspid valve
  • pulmonary valve
  • aortic valve

Question 50

Question
The right ventricle ejects blood into the:
Answer
  • left atrium
  • pulmonary trunk
  • left ventricle
  • right atrium

Question 51

Question
The left ventricle ejects blood into the:
Answer
  • left atrium
  • aorta
  • pulmonary trunk
  • right atrium

Question 52

Question
Blood returning to the right atrium comes from:
Answer
  • superior vena cava
  • inferior vena cava
  • coronary sinus
  • all of the above

Question 53

Question
Systole refers to:
Answer
  • contraction
  • relaxation

Question 54

Question
Diastole refers to:
Answer
  • contraction
  • relaxation

Question 55

Question
The pacemaker of the heart is the:
Answer
  • purkinje fibers
  • AV node
  • SA node
  • AV bundle

Question 56

Question
Increased parasympathetic innervation of the heart results in:
Answer
  • increased heart rate
  • decreased heart rate

Question 57

Question
Which of these statements about arteries is false?
Answer
  • arteries have an inner muscular layer than can constrict or dilate
  • arteries are capacitance vessels and can expand to hold a lot of blood
  • arteries are strong, elastic vessels
  • arteries consist of three distinct layers

Question 58

Question
Which of these statements about veins is FALSE?
Answer
  • veins can distend to hold a lot of blood
  • veins contain valves to help blood return to the heart
  • veins contain three distinct layers
  • veins are much stronger than arteries

Question 59

Question
In which vessel does gas exchange occur?
Answer
  • aorta
  • venules
  • capillaries
  • arterioles

Question 60

Question
Where is blood pressure the highest?
Answer
  • capillary beds
  • aorta
  • femoral artery
  • inferior vena cava

Question 61

Question
If heart rate increases, what happens to blood pressure?
Answer
  • it increases
  • it decreases
  • it stays the same

Question 62

Question
The volume of blood ejected from the left ventricle per minute is called:
Answer
  • heart rate
  • cardiac output
  • peripheral resistance
  • stroke volume

Question 63

Question
If blood volume decreases, what happens to blood pressure?
Answer
  • it stays the same
  • it increases
  • it decreases

Question 64

Question
A person with high blood pressure would most likely be prescribed a(an):
Answer
  • insulin
  • antibiotic
  • diuretic
  • nothing

Question 65

Question
During exercise, which of the following occurs?
Answer
  • venous blood return increases due to the skeletal muscle pump in veins
  • stronger ventricular contraction due to the Frank-Starling law of the heart
  • increase in heart rate due to increased sympathetic activity
  • all of the above

Question 66

Question
The blood vessels that carry blood from the heart to the lungs and back to the heart make up the:
Answer
  • systemic circuit
  • pulmonary circuit

Question 67

Question
Which of these structures is not part of the alimentary canal?
Answer
  • esophagus
  • stomach
  • pancreas
  • large intestine

Question 68

Question
Which layer of the alimentary canal is responsible for lubricating the tube's outer surface so that organs within the abdominal cavity can slide freely against one another?
Answer
  • muscular
  • submucosa
  • mucosa
  • serosa

Question 69

Question
Propelling movements in a wavelike motion is called:
Answer
  • peristalsis
  • mixing
  • segmentation
  • contraction

Question 70

Question
Serous cells in salivary glands:
Answer
  • secrete mucus to act as a lubricant during swallowing
  • begin the digestion of fats and proteins
  • produce a watery fluid containing salivary amylase to split starch

Question 71

Question
Parietal cells in the stomach release:
Answer
  • hydrochloric acid
  • intrinsic factor
  • digestive enzymes
  • A and B

Question 72

Question
What is the function of pepsin?
Answer
  • to digest fats
  • to digest proteins
  • to digest carbohydrates
  • to cause the secretion of bile

Question 73

Question
Mucous cells in the stomach provide an _____________ layer to protect the stomach.
Answer
  • acidic
  • alkaline

Question 74

Question
Which hormone is responsible for decreasing the secretory activity of gastric glands and inhibits gastric motility?
Answer
  • gastrin
  • cholecystokinin
  • secretin
  • leptin

Question 75

Question
Which hormone causes the pancreas to secrete a fluid high in bicarbonate ion concentration?
Answer
  • gastrin
  • cholecystokinin
  • secretin
  • leptin

Question 76

Question
Which hormone stimulates the gallbladder to contract and release bile?
Answer
  • leptin
  • secretin
  • cholecystokinin
  • gastrin

Question 77

Question
Which hormone stimulates the pancreas to secrete fluid with high digestive enzyme concentration?
Answer
  • gastrin
  • chelocystokinin
  • secretin
  • leptin

Question 78

Question
How are gastric secretions regulated?
Answer
  • parasympathetic impulses that release ACh
  • the release of gastrin
  • the smell of food
  • all of the above

Question 79

Question
Which of these substances is absorbed in the stomach?
Answer
  • glucose
  • amino acids
  • alcohol
  • none of the above

Question 80

Question
_____________ cells synthesize bile, which is needed for __________________.
Answer
  • kidney, emulsification
  • hepatic, peristalsis
  • hepatic, emulsification
  • gallbladder, carbohydrate digestion

Question 81

Question
Proteins and fats in the duodenum stimulate the release of the hormone ________________, which causes the contraction of the ______________.
Answer
  • gastrin, gallbladder
  • CCK, gallbladder
  • secretin, pancreas
  • gastrin, stomach

Question 82

Question
Emulsification allows these enzymes to function properly:
Answer
  • lipases
  • amylases
  • nucleases
  • peptidases

Question 83

Question
Which of these is NOT a function of the small intestine?
Answer
  • absorb digestive products
  • finishes digestion with enzymes embedded in microvilli
  • transports residues to the large intestine
  • all of the above

Question 84

Question
Which of these sugars will be absorbed into a villus?
Answer
  • sucrose
  • maltose
  • glucose
  • lactose

Question 85

Question
These nutrients must enter lacteals before joining the general circulation:
Answer
  • sugars
  • proteins
  • fats
  • vitamins

Question 86

Question
The lipoprotein with the highest concentration of protein and lowest concentration of lipids, and removes cholesterol from tissues is:
Answer
  • VLDL
  • LDL
  • HDL

Question 87

Question
The lipoprotein that transports triglycerides synthesized from excess dietary carbohydrate is:
Answer
  • VLDL
  • LDL
  • HDL

Question 88

Question
Which of these is NOT a function of the large intestine?
Answer
  • absorbs water and electrolytes
  • finish digesting fats
  • synthesize vitamins
  • store feces

Question 89

Question
Proteins from food must be _____________ before they can be used as energy sources.
Answer
  • oxidized
  • reduced
  • deaminated
  • aminated

Question 90

Question
Ketone bodies are a result of:
Answer
  • fat metabolism
  • protein metabolism
  • carbohydrate metabolism

Question 91

Question
Which of these respiratory structures is involved in gas exchange?
Answer
  • larynx
  • trachea
  • bronchioles
  • alveoli

Question 92

Question
Inspiration occurs because:
Answer
  • intra-alveolar pressure increases
  • intra-alveolar pressure decreases
  • atmospheric pressure increases
  • atmospheric pressure decreases

Question 93

Question
Which muscles are used for inspiration?
Answer
  • external intercostals
  • internal intercostals
  • diaphragm
  • A and C

Question 94

Question
Which muscles are used for passive expiration?
Answer
  • external intercostals
  • internal intercostals
  • diaphragm
  • none of the above

Question 95

Question
The volume of air that enters or leaves a single respiratory cycle is the:
Answer
  • tidal volume
  • residual volume
  • total lung capacity
  • inspiratory capacity

Question 96

Question
Central chemoreceptors are most sensitive to changes in levels of:
Answer
  • carbon dioxide
  • nitrogen
  • oxygen
  • hemoglobin

Question 97

Question
Peripheral chemoreceptors are most sensitive to changes in blood levels of:
Answer
  • carbon dioxide
  • nitrogen
  • oxygen
  • hemoglobin

Question 98

Question
Most oxygen in the body is transported:
Answer
  • dissolved in plasma
  • bound to hemoglobin

Question 99

Question
Most carbon dioxide in the body is transported:
Answer
  • dissolved in plasma
  • bound to hemoglobin
  • as bicarbonate ion

Question 100

Question
Where does the following reaction occur? H+ + HCO3- ---> H2CO3 ----> CO2 + H2O
Answer
  • Plasma
  • lung capillaries
  • kidney capillaries
  • stomach capillaries

Question 101

Question
Choose the correct pathway of urine formation:
Answer
  • Glomerulus > PCT > Collecting Duct > Nephron Loop > Bladder
  • PCT > glomerulus > Collecting Duct > Nephron Loop > Bladder
  • Glomerulus > PCT > Nephron Loop > Collecting Duct > Bladder
  • Nephron Loop > Glomerulus > Collecting Duct > Bladder

Question 102

Question
Where does filtration occur in the nephron?
Answer
  • glomerulus
  • PCT
  • Nephron loop
  • DCT

Question 103

Question
Where does most reabsorption of substances occur in the nephron?
Answer
  • glomerulus
  • PCT
  • Nephron loop
  • DCT

Question 104

Question
Where does secretion occur in the nephron?
Answer
  • glomerulus
  • PCT
  • Nephron loop
  • DCT
  • both B and D

Question 105

Question
The _________________ regulates how concentrated urine will be.
Answer
  • glomerulus
  • PCT
  • DCT
  • collecting duct

Question 106

Question
A decrease in salt concentration will cause the juxtaglomerular cells to secrete the enzyme __________.
Answer
  • EPO
  • Renin
  • Aldosterone
  • ADH

Question 107

Question
Which of these is a result of angiotensin II?
Answer
  • vasoconstriction
  • aldosterone secretion
  • increased thirst
  • all of the above

Question 108

Question
Constricting the efferent arteriole causes:
Answer
  • an increase in the GFR
  • a decrease in the GFR
  • nothing changes to the GFR

Question 109

Question
Which of the following does NOT occur during micturition?
Answer
  • the internal sphincter must open
  • the external sphincter relaxes
  • the detrusor muscle contracts
  • the detrusor muscle relaxes

Question 110

Question
Which of these ions is found in greater concentration in the extracellular fluid?
Answer
  • potassium
  • sodium
  • chloride
  • B and C

Question 111

Question
An example of transcellular fluid is:
Answer
  • fluid in the cytosol of a cell
  • plasma
  • lymph
  • synovial fluid

Question 112

Question
Your blood is becoming too acidic, which of the following does NOT occur to regain homeostasis?
Answer
  • hydrogen ions are secreted into the renal tubules
  • hydrogen ions are reabsorbed into the peritubular capillaries
  • rate and depth of breathing increases

Question 113

Question
Which of these is a second line of defense against a pH shift?
Answer
  • phosphate buffer system
  • protein buffer system
  • renal mechanism
  • bicarbonate buffer system

Question 114

Question
Which of these causes respiratory acidosis?
Answer
  • vomiting up contents from the small intestine
  • excessive ketone production from diabetes
  • diarrhea
  • trauma to respiratory center of the brainstem

Question 115

Question
Your blood is becoming too basic, which of the following does NOT occur to regain homeostasis?
Answer
  • H2PO4- > H+ +HPO4-2
  • Hydrogen ions are secreted into the renal tubules
  • Hydrogen ions are reabsorbed into the peritubular capillaries
  • The rate and depth of breathing decreases

Question 116

Question
Which of these causes respiratory alkalosis?
Answer
  • vomiting up stomach contents
  • hyperventilating
  • ingestion of too many antacids
  • kidney failure