Animal Biology Practice Exam 1

lsmith181
Quiz by lsmith181, updated more than 1 year ago
lsmith181
Created by lsmith181 about 5 years ago
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Practice Exam for Animal Biology Exam 1: Animal Characteristics, Phylogenetics, Animal Ecology, and Animal Development and Architecture

Resource summary

Question 1

Question
Ecology is the study of interactions and relationships of organisms with surrounding biotic and abiotic components.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 2

Question
The levels of ecology from smallest to largest are: [blank_start]Individual[blank_end] < [blank_start]Population[blank_end] < [blank_start]Community[blank_end] < [blank_start]Ecosystem[blank_end] < [blank_start]Biosphere[blank_end]
Answer
  • Individual
  • Population
  • Community
  • Ecosystem
  • Biosphere

Question 3

Question
What is the most important abiotic parameter defining species distribution?
Answer
  • Temperature
  • Habitat
  • Ecological roles
  • Oxygen levels

Question 4

Question
What is the ecological "space" a species fills?
Answer
  • Niche
  • Population
  • Community
  • Abiotic parameter
  • Biotic parameter

Question 5

Question
Select all the phyla that belong in the animal kingdom:
Answer
  • Porifera
  • Cnidaria
  • Platyhelminthes
  • Nematoda
  • Mollusca
  • Annelida
  • Arthropoda
  • Echinodermata
  • Chordata
  • Pteridophyta

Question 6

Question
A [blank_start]diploblast[blank_end] has two germ layers and a [blank_start]triploblast[blank_end] has three germ layers.
Answer
  • diploblast
  • triploblast
  • triploblast
  • diploblast

Question 7

Question
A deuterostome is [blank_start]anus[blank_end] first and a protostome is [blank_start]mouth[blank_end] first.
Answer
  • anus
  • mouth
  • mouth
  • anus

Question 8

Question
A unique characteristic of animals is that all were developed from a [blank_start]blastula[blank_end], a hollow ball of embryonic cells.
Answer
  • blastula

Question 9

Question
A unique characteristic of animals is that all have cell adhesion molecules: including [blank_start]fibronectin[blank_end] and [blank_start]cadherins[blank_end].
Answer
  • fibronectin
  • cadherins

Question 10

Question
A unique characteristic of animals is all have cell junctions including [blank_start]tight junctions[blank_end], [blank_start]desmosomes[blank_end], and [blank_start]gap junctions[blank_end]
Answer
  • tight junctions
  • desmosomes
  • gap junctions

Question 11

Question
A unique characteristic of animals is all have an extracellular matrix containing [blank_start]collagen[blank_end].
Answer
  • collagen

Question 12

Question
Label the graphic in terms of fundamental niche and realized niche.
Answer
  • Realized niche
  • Fundamental niche

Question 13

Question
A [blank_start]fundamental[blank_end] niche includes all acceptable conditions which a species can occupy while a [blank_start]realized[blank_end] niche is a subset of suitable conditions that a species occupies.
Answer
  • fundamental
  • realized
  • realized
  • fundamental

Question 14

Question
Pair the animals to their correct type in the survivorship curve.
Answer
  • Human
  • Mackerel
  • American Robin
  • Human
  • American Robin
  • Mackerel
  • Human
  • American Robin
  • Mackerel

Question 15

Question
What survivorship curve would you expect for sea turtle populations?
Answer
  • Type 1
  • Type 2
  • Type 3

Question 16

Question
Growth is limited by resources.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 17

Question
What is the term for a resource in short supply?
Answer
  • Limited resource
  • Limited factor
  • Carrying capacity
  • Niche

Question 18

Question
What is the term for the largest population that an environment can support?
Answer
  • Carry capacity
  • Complete niche
  • Maximum capacity
  • Exponential growth

Question 19

Question
At carrying capacity, birth rates are [blank_start]equal to[blank_end] death rates.
Answer
  • equal to
  • greater than
  • less than

Question 20

Question
Populations [blank_start]fluctuate[blank_end] around carrying capacity.
Answer
  • fluctuate
  • flourish
  • diminish

Question 21

Question
A density-independent effect impact is proportional to number of individuals in an area.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 22

Question
Select all the CORRECT statements about competition:
Answer
  • Competition reduces the fitness of BOTH parties.
  • Competition occurs when resources are limited.
  • Competition can be intraspecific or interspecific.
  • Competition is a density-independent effect.

Question 23

Question
Populations of predator and prey tend to oscillate when a predator relies on a single prey species
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 24

Question
What does this image depict?
Answer
  • Resource partitioning
  • Limited resources
  • Realized niches
  • Interspecies competition

Question 25

Question
[blank_start]Cell fate[blank_end] is determined by a series of "decisions" made in early development that become the programmed identity of cells with a point of no return.
Answer
  • Cell fate

Question 26

Question
[blank_start]Cleavage[blank_end] is the first cell divisions where zygotic contents partition among smaller cells.
Answer
  • Cleavage

Question 27

Question
[blank_start]Gastrulation[blank_end] is the formation of gut and other germ layer(s) in addition to ectoderm.
Answer
  • Gastrulation

Question 28

Question
[blank_start]Morphogenesis[blank_end] is the development of organismal form and/or shape.
Answer
  • Morphogenesis

Question 29

Question
A zygote subdivides into smaller cells called [blank_start]blastomeres[blank_end].
Answer
  • blastomeres

Question 30

Question
Cell fates are closely linked to germ layers.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 31

Question
Name the type of cleavage shown:
Answer
  • Meroblastic
  • Holoblastic

Question 32

Question
Name the type of cleavage shown:
Answer
  • Meroblastic
  • Holoblastic

Question 33

Question
Gradients of morphogens can be established in what ways?
Answer
  • Unequal distribution in the zygote.
  • Production of morphogens from specific cells.
  • Inheriting of morphogens from parent cell.
  • Equal distribution in the zygote.

Question 34

Question
Early development requires two processes:
Answer
  • Pattern formation
  • Differentiation
  • Development of mitochondria
  • Mitosis

Question 35

Question
Which statement best describes competitive relationship:
Answer
  • Two species of birds that live harmoneously in the same oak tree.
  • A north Georgia bobcat and a cougar population that both prey on cottontail rabbits.
  • A nematode that infects a white-footed mouse by tropic transmission.
  • A barnacle that resides on the underbelly of a whale shark.

Question 36

Question
Which statement best describes a parasitic relationship:
Answer
  • A white-footed mouse infected by a nematode through tropic transmission.
  • Two species of birds that reside in the same oak tree.
  • A Central American squirrel monkey that eats bananas and ants and a Geoffroy's spider monkey that eats starfruit and flies in the same Costa Rican rainforest region.
  • Two species of tropical fish that live in different locations in the same coral reef.

Question 37

Question
Which is an example of an amensalism relationship:
Answer
  • A black walnut tree secreting the chemical, juglone, killing all it's neighboring plants.
  • Two species of birds harmoniously living at different level branches in the same oak tree.
  • Two species of lizards eating the same type of fly in a local coastal marsh.
  • A swamp rabbit and a marsh rabbit inhabiting different regions in Georgia.

Question 38

Question
Select the example of mutualistic relationship:
Answer
  • Two species of birds harmoniously living on different branch levels of the same oak tree.
  • A population of Northwestern salmon with more males than females during breeding season.
  • The bread mold Penicillium secreting penicillin to that chemical kills bacteria.
  • A nematode that infects the white-footed mouse by trophic transmission.

Question 39

Question
Select the example of a commensalistic relationship:
Answer
  • A clownfish that live amid the tentacles of the anemones which protects them from predators.
  • Two species of birds that live harmoniously on different level branches of the same oak tree.
  • A nematode that infects the white-footed mouse via trophic transmission.
  • A marsh rabbit and a swamp rabbit that migrated to different wetland regions in Georgia.

Question 40

Question
Theories exist that explain the method in which multicellularity arose in animals. Which theory has the most evidentiary support in the scientific community?
Answer
  • Symbiotic relationship between protist species.
  • Ancestral colonial protist
  • Cellularization: multinucleate protist ancestor evolves membranes around nuclei.
  • All have equal support in the scientific community.

Question 41

Question
According to this phylogenetic tree, annelids are most closely related to _____.
Answer
  • arthropods
  • molluscs
  • nematodes
  • cnidarians
  • platyhelminths

Question 42

Question
According to this phylogenetic tree, the clade that includes echinoderms and chordates is most closely related to the clade that includes _____.
Answer
  • molluscs
  • poriferans
  • nematodes
  • cnidarians
  • platyhelminths

Question 43

Question
According to this phylogenetic tree, cnidarians are most closely related to _____.
Answer
  • nematodes
  • annelids
  • molluscs
  • echinoderms
  • platyhelminths

Question 44

Question
According to this phylogenetic tree, chordates are most closely related to _____.
Answer
  • arthropods
  • molluscs
  • pariferans
  • echinoderms
  • cnidarians

Question 45

Question
This phylogenetic tree indicates that mammals are most closely related to _____.
Answer
  • sharks, rays, and chimaeras
  • ray-finned fishes
  • tunicates
  • reptiles
  • amphibians

Question 46

Question
According to this phylogenetic tree, the animals most closely related to reptiles and mammals are _____.
Answer
  • sharks, rays, and chimaeras
  • amphibians
  • lampreys
  • ray-finned fishes
  • lancelets

Question 47

Question
The group in the red box is
Answer
  • monophyletic
  • polyphyletic
  • paraphyletic

Question 48

Question
The group in the red box is
Answer
  • monophyletic
  • polyphyletic
  • paraphyletic

Question 49

Question
The group in the red box is
Answer
  • monophyletic
  • paraphyletic
  • polyphyletic

Question 50

Question
Accurate taxonomy is based on
Answer
  • monophyly
  • paraphyly
  • polyphyly
  • a combination of monophyly, paraphyly, and polyphyly.

Question 51

Question
Select all the scenarios that are considered density-independant:
Answer
  • A coastal region experiencing a flood from heavy spring rains
  • A costa rican population of spider monkeys experiencing a food shortage for the first time in a decade
  • A wildfire that is destroyed 100 acres of Redwood forest in California.
  • A population of gray squirrels experiencing an increase in predation by the red fox population.
  • A local farm introducing a new pesticide to corn that targets the short-horned grasshopper.
  • A town in New Hampshire whose landfills will be at max capacity in less than one year.
  • A population of coyotes that is experiencing an increased occurrence of mange.
  • Several countries in South America lost 10% of their population due to experiencing a 8.5 magnitude earthquake.

Question 52

Question
Select all the scenarios that are density-dependent:
Answer
  • A category 5 hurricane caused an atlantic coastal town to lose 10% of their population.
  • A wildfire swept through 10 western US farming counties and killed thousands of acres of crops.
  • A population of gray squirrels is experiencing a shortage of food for the first time in a decade.
  • A population of cottontail rabbits is experiencing an increase in predation by a population of red fox.
  • A town in Vermont is experiencing an influx and overflow in their local sewer system.
  • A population of white-tailed deer is experiencing an influx in lyme disease.
  • A population of Northwestern African cheetah has in influx in male cheetahs to female cheetahs during mating season, causing the males to compete for mates.
  • A local farm is introducing a new pesticide to their corn to target the short-horned grasshopper.
  • A 8.5 magnitude earthquake destroyed the water supply and killed 500 people across 3 South American countries.

Question 53

Question
What states that two species that compete for the exact same resources cannot stably coexist?
Answer
  • The Principle of Competitive Exclusion
  • The Theory of Multicellularity
  • The Principle of Resource Partitioning
  • The Theory of Evolution

Question 54

Question
All of the following factors led to exponential human population growth about a thousand years ago EXCEPT:
Answer
  • Reduction in disease
  • Reduction in human waste
  • increase in food supply
  • colder climate
  • expansion of habitat

Question 55

Question
All cells in the human body are genomically equal except for sex cells.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 56

Question
This image depicts a morphogen gradient that is equally distributed.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 57

Question
In conditional specification, cells secrete [blank_start]morphogens[blank_end] to influence nearby cells to differentiate.
Answer
  • morphogens
  • gradients
  • genes
  • mesoderm
  • cytoplasm

Question 58

Question
Select all the correct statements about mosaic cleavage:
Answer
  • patterns arise from cytoplasmic specification
  • heavily influenced by maternal effect gene products in the egg.
  • protostomes
  • deuterstomes
  • cell fate is fixed after first division
  • cell fate is NOT fixed after first division
  • cells "regulate" development of nearby undifferentiated cells by producing morphogens
  • patterns arise from induction

Question 59

Question
Select all the correct statements about regulative cleavage:
Answer
  • patterns arise from cytoplasmic specification
  • cell fate fixed after first division
  • heavily influenced by maternal effect gene products in the egg
  • protostomes
  • deuterstomes
  • cell fate is NOT fixed after first division
  • cells "regulate" development of nearby cells by producing morphogens
  • patterns arise from induction

Question 60

Question
[blank_start]Cytoplasmic specification[blank_end] is when blastomeres inherit different amounts of various morphogens during initial stages of zygote division.
Answer
  • Cytoplasmic specification
  • Induction

Question 61

Question
[blank_start]Induction[blank_end] is when morphogen concentrations drop as distance from source cells increases.
Answer
  • Induction
  • Cytoplasmic specification

Question 62

Question
[blank_start]Pattern formation[blank_end] is where body regions and cell types will be formed.
Answer
  • Pattern formation
  • Differentiation

Question 63

Question
[blank_start]Differentiation[blank_end] is what type of cell will develop.
Answer
  • Differentiation
  • Pattern formation

Question 64

Question
Gradients of morphogens identify major axes. The primary development axes are:
Answer
  • Anterior-posterior
  • Dorsal-ventral
  • Superficial-Deep
  • Distal-Medial

Question 65

Question
Primary morphogen gradients set up gradients in other morphogens.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 66

Question
Hox genes...
Answer
  • code for morphogens that define specific regions in the body.
  • contain a short sequence that codes for a homeobox domain.
  • are homeobox domains.
  • are morphogens.
  • are highly conserved genes.
  • are arranged in gene clusters.
  • are arranged in a radial formation.
  • explain consistency of early development among diverse animal phyla
  • explain the inconsistencies of development between animal phyla and plant phyla

Question 67

Question
The order of Hox genes represents where the gene will be expressed along an animal's [blank_start]anterior-posterior[blank_end] axis.
Answer
  • anterior-posterior
  • dorsal-ventral
  • superficial-deep
  • distal-medial

Question 68

Question
Mutation in [blank_start]Hox genes[blank_end] may explain major morphological changes in evolution.
Answer
  • Hox genes
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