Arthrology, Myology Part 2(b)- Anatomy PMU 1st Year, 1st Semester

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Arthrology, Myology Part 2
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Question 1

Question
The radial nerve
Answer
  • contains fibers derived from only the sixth, seventh and eighth cervical spinal nerves
  • passes in front of the humerus from the medial to the lateral side
  • supplies the muscles on the posterior aspect of the upper arm and forearm
  • supplies sensory branches to the nail beds of the index and middle fingers
  • is the only nerve supplying the triceps muscle.

Question 2

Question
The flexor digitorum profundus muscle
Answer
  • has an attachment to the ulna and not the radius
  • is supplied only by the ulnar nerve
  • can flex the distal, middle and proximal phalanges of the hand
  • is deep to the flexor digitorum superficialis (sublimis) muscle and tendons along its whole course
  • has only three of the four lumbrical muscles attached to its tendons in the hand

Question 3

Question
If the ulnar nerve is cut at the elbow
Answer
  • part of the flexor digitorum superficialis (sublimis) is paralysed
  • there is a loss of sensation in the back of the index finger
  • flexion at the metacarpophalangeal joints of the ring and little finger is lost if their interphalarlgeal joints are kept extended
  • the distal phalanges of all the fingers are extended at the distal interphalangeal joints
  • the movement of opposition of the thumb is usually lost

Question 4

Question
If the median nerve is cut at the wrist
Answer
  • sensation in the skin over the hack of the whole of the index finger is lost
  • adduction of the thumb is lost
  • the movement of opposition of the thumb is usually lost
  • flexion at the metacarpophalangeal joint of the thumb is impossible
  • extension at the interphalangeal joints of the index finger is lost

Question 5

Question
With regard to movements of the medial four digits
Answer
  • movement of the index finger in a radial direction is due to the first dorsal interosseous muscle
  • flexion at the distal interphalangeal joints of all the digits is lost if the ulnar nerve is cut at the elbow
  • flexion at the metacarpophalangeal joints while there is extension at the interphalangeal joints is due to the lumbrical muscles
  • movement of the ring finger in a radial direction is due to the third dorsal interosseous muscle
  • extension at the metacarpophalangeal joints is effected by the dorsal interosseous muscles

Question 6

Question
The palmar aponeurosis
Answer
  • is attached to the skin of the palm by fibrous septa
  • is attached distally to the fibrous flexor sheaths
  • protects the underlying tendons
  • receives tendon of palmaris longus
  • apex is attached to flexor retinaculum

Question 7

Question
The ulnar nerve
Answer
  • supplies the adductor pollicis muscle
  • lies medial to the hook of the hamate
  • supplies all the interossei muscles
  • is deep to the flexor retinaculum
  • contains fibers from only the first thoracic spinal nerve

Question 8

Question
If the median nerve is cut at the level of the elbow joint
Answer
  • there is a loss of sensation in the tips of all the fingers
  • there is usually a loss of opposition of the thumb
  • there is a complete loss of flexion at the wrist
  • there is a loss of adduction of the thumb
  • there is a loss of flexion at the interphalangeal joint of the thumb

Question 9

Question
If the radial nerve is cut in the axilla
Answer
  • the hand cannot be extended at the wrist
  • there is widespread sensory loss over the back of the forearm
  • the fingers cannot be extended at the metacarpophalangeal joints
  • the flexed forearm cannot be actively extended at the elbow
  • the forearm cannot be pronated

Question 10

Question
The median nerve
Answer
  • arises by two roots, one from the lateral cord and the other from the medial cord of the brachial plexus
  • does not contain fibers originating in the first thoracic spinal nerve
  • lies medial to the axillary artery in the axilla
  • supplies all the flexor muscles in the front of the forearm
  • is commonly the motor nerve to the abductor pollicis brevis muscle

Question 11

Question
In the hand
Answer
  • the superficial palmar arch is deep to the branches of the median nerve
  • the second palmar interosseous muscle is attached to the third metacarpal bone
  • the second dorsal interosseous muscle pulls the middle finger in a radial direction
  • the four dorsal interossei muscles are supplied by the radial nerve
  • the deep palmar arch is formed mainly by the radial artery

Question 12

Question
The radius
Answer
  • has its growing end proximally
  • has the tendon of the biceps muscle attached to the whole of the radial tuberosity
  • has the pronator teres muscle attached to its lateral border
  • has the extensor pollicis longus muscle attached to it
  • has the tendon of the abductor pollicis longus muscle on the lateral side of its styloid process

Question 13

Question
The flexor digitorum superlicialis (sublimis) muscle
Answer
  • has attachments to the humerus, radius and ulna
  • has only two tendons just above the flexor retinaculum
  • is supplied only by the median nerve
  • is attached to the base of the middle phalanx of the medial four digits
  • is superficial to the ulnar artery in the upper part of the forearm

Question 14

Question
The ulnar nerve
Answer
  • is deep to the triceps muscle in part of its course
  • is posterior to the medial epicondyle of the humerus
  • arises from the medial cord of the brachial plexus
  • is medial to the ulnar artery in the forearm
  • contains fibers which supply the skin of the medial part of the front of the palm of the hand

Question 15

Question
The median nerve
Answer
  • is lateral to the axillary vein in the with
  • crosses in front of the brachial artery from the medial to the lateral side in the upper arm
  • gives a branch to the elbow joint
  • is lateral to the tendon of the biceps brachii muscle in the cubital fossa
  • is superficial to the flexor retinaculum

Question 16

Question
The ulna
Answer
  • has the flexor digitorum profundus muscle attached to its anterior surface
  • has the flexor digitorum superficialis (sublimis) muscle attached to the medial side of its coronoid process
  • may have the flexor pollicis longus muscle attached to it
  • has the abductor pollicis longus muscle attached to its posterior surface
  • has the flexor carpi ulnaris muscle attached to it

Question 17

Question
The great (long) saphenous vein
Answer
  • is anterior to the lateral malleolus
  • is anterior to the saphenous nerve in the leg
  • has no valves in its course in the leg
  • is connected to the deep veins of the lower limb by channels which have no valves
  • after passing through the saphenous opening receives the superficial epigastric and external pudendal veins
  • none of these

Question 18

Question
The semimembranosus muscle
Answer
  • is a flexor of the leg at the knee
  • forms the upper medial boundary of the popliteal fossa
  • is innervated by the medial popliteal (tibial) part of the sciatic nerve
  • forms the oblique popliteal ligament of the knee joint
  • has deep to its tibial attachment a bursa which never communicates with the knee joint

Question 19

Question
The longitudinal plantar (tarsal) arch is supported and maintained by the
Answer
  • tibialis anterior muscle
  • peroneus longus muscle
  • tibialis posterior muscle
  • calcaneouavicular ligament
  • popliteus muscle

Question 20

Question
The peroneus longus muscle
Answer
  • is paralyzed if the sciatic nerve is cut
  • is an evertor of the foot
  • is attached to the fifth metatarsal bone
  • is an important muscle in maintaining the transverse arch of the foot
  • is attached to the medial surface of the fibula

Question 21

Question
With regard to the tibia
Answer
  • the flexor hallucis longus muscle is attached to its posterior surface
  • the extensor hallucis longus muscle is attached to its anterolateral surface
  • its articulations with the fibula are both synovial
  • none of these

Question 22

Question
The soleus muscle
Answer
  • is attached to only the soleal line ofthe tibia
  • is active while walking upstairs
  • is active while walking downstairs
  • has a tendon which begins at a higher level than that of the gastrocnemius muscle
  • is a plantar flexor of the foot at the ankle joint

Question 23

Question
The calcaneus
Answer
  • has the tendo calcaneus (Achillis) attached to the middle of its posterior surface
  • has the tendon of flexor hallucis longus passing inferior to the sustentaculum tali
  • has the flexor digitorum accessorius muscle attached to its inferior and medial surfaces
  • has the long plantar ligament attached to its inferior surface
  • has the inferior extensor retinaculum attached to its upper surface anteriorly

Question 24

Question
The common peroneal nerve (or its branches)
Answer
  • innervates the skin between the third and fourth toes
  • innervates the knee joint
  • innervates the peroneus tertius muscle
  • innervates all the muscles producing inversion of the foot
  • innervates all the muscles producing evasion of the foot

Question 25

Question
Fibers of the fourth lumbar spinal nerve
Answer
  • supply skin on the medial side of the leg
  • are found in the inferior gluteal nerve
  • are found in the femoral nerve
  • are found in the tibial nerve
  • are found in the common peroneal nerve.

Question 26

Question
The superficial peroneal nerve supplies
Answer
  • peroneus Iongus and brevis
  • peroneus tertius
  • tibialis anterior
  • extensor digitorum longus
  • flexor digitorum longus

Question 27

Question
The great (long) saphenous vein
Answer
  • begins on the medial side of the ankle
  • is anterior to the tibial (medial) malleolus
  • is anterior to the medial femoral condyle
  • receives the termination of the small (short) saphenous vein
  • has no connexions with the deep veins of the leg

Question 28

Question
The semimembranosus muscle
Answer
  • has a common origin from the ischial tuberosity with the semitendinosus
  • is deep to the semitendinosus muscle
  • can act as a lateral rotator of the leg on the thigh
  • is an extensor of the thigh on the trunk
  • is innervated by the common peroneal (lateral popliteal) nerve

Question 29

Question
The tibialis anterior muscle
Answer
  • is a dorsiflexor of the foot at the ankle joint
  • is active during the whole of the stance phase of the step in walking
  • is attached to the navicular bone
  • helps to maintain the medial longitudinal arch
  • is innervated by the deep pertinent (anterior tibial) nerve

Question 30

Question
The medial plantar nerve
Answer
  • has cutaneous branches which supply the media! three and a half toes
  • arises from the tibial (pusterior tibial) nerve deep to the flexor retinaculum
  • innervates the abductor hallucis muscle
  • intervates the flexor digitorum brevis muscle
  • innervates the medial two plantar interossei muscles

Question 31

Question
If the common peroneal (lateral popliteal) nerve is cut
Answer
  • aversion of the foot is lost
  • inversion of the foot is lost
  • dorsiflexion of the foot is lost
  • plantar flexion of the foot is lost
  • there is no loss of cutaneous sensation

Question 32

Question
The tibial(medial popliteal) nerve
Answer
  • is superficial to the popliteal vessels in the popliteal fossa
  • is lateral to the popliteal and posterior tibial vessels along the whole of its course down the back of the knee and leg
  • gives off the sural nerve to the medial side of the leg and foot
  • gives branches to the muscles which plantar flex the foot
  • gives branches to the knee and ankle joints

Question 33

Question
The flexor hallucis longus muscle
Answer
  • is attached to the tibia
  • has a tendon which in the sole is superficial to the tendon of the flexor digitorum longus muscle
  • has a tendon which is medial to the posterior tibial vessels and nerves deep to the flexor retinaculum
  • is attached to the proximal phalanx of the great toe
  • receives a slip from the flexor digitorum accessories muscle
  • none of these

Question 34

Question
The tiblalis posterior muscle
Answer
  • is attached to both bones of the leg
  • has a tendon which passes deep to the tendon of the flexor digitorum longus muscle
  • is an invertor of the foot
  • is attached by a fibrous slip to the sustentaculum tali
  • has a tendon which lies in a groove on the posterior aspect of the medial malleolus

Question 35

Question
The radial nerve:
Answer
  • arises from lateral cord of the brachial plexus
  • supplies brachioradialis
  • divides near the elbow into muscular and cutaneous components
  • innervates most of the dorsal skin of the hand
  • when injured, gives rise to-the condition known as wrist drop

Question 36

Question
The ulnar nerve:
Answer
  • arises from the medial cord of the brachial plexus
  • supplies skin on medial side of arm and forearm
  • passes behind medial epicondyle of humerus
  • supplies first dorsal interosseous muscle
  • when injured, thenar muscles are wasted

Question 37

Question
The median nerve:
Answer
  • arises directly from trunks of the brachial plexus
  • crosses the axillary artery from lateral to medial side
  • enters the forearm through pronator quadratus
  • enters the hand by passing through carpal tunnel
  • when injured gives rise to the condition known as ‘claw hand’

Question 38

Question
The carpal tunnel:
Answer
  • is a fibro-osseous tunnel formed by carpal bones and palmar apaneurosis
  • contains the tendons of flexor digitorum superficialis
  • both the radial and ulnar arteries
  • compression of nerve in tunnel causes sensory loss in index finger (palmar surface)
  • contains portion of ulnar bursa

Question 39

Question
The palmar aponeurosis:
Answer
  • is attached to the skin of the palm by fibrous septa
  • is attached distally to the fibrous flexor sheaths
  • protects the underlying tendons
  • receives tendon of palmaris longus
  • apex is attached to flexor retinaculum

Question 40

Question
If the median nerve is cut at the wrist
Answer
  • sensation in the skin over the back of the whole of the index finger is lost
  • adduction of the thumb is lost
  • the movement of opposition of the thumb is usually lost
  • flexion at the metacarpophalangeal joint of the thumbs impossible
  • extension at the interphalangeal joints of the index finger is lost
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