Congenital heart disease may cause a soft murmur but a loud one always indicates the presence of disease.
Which of the following is TRUE of therapy of congenital heart disease?
CHD is most appropriately treated by medical therapy
All surgical approaches (not including interventional catheterization) require cardiopulmonary bipass
Interventional catheterization is nearly as invasive as surgeries
Some forms of CHD can be treated definitively
Which of the following is FALSE about PDA?
One of the most common forms of CHD in dogs
If a murmur is truly continuous, PDA is almost always the cause
PDA imposes volume overload on the right atrium and right ventricle, therefore right-sided CHF is a potential consequence
Mortality is high without correction. Transcatheter occlusion or surgical ligation represent definitive management
Which of the following describe pulmonic stenosis? Check all that apply.
Imposes a pressure overload on the right ventricle
Severely affected dogs may develop and succumb to right-sided CHF in the first years of life despite a lack of clinical signs during puppyhood
Definitive diagnosis requires Doppler ECHO
Initial treatment of choice is balloon valvuloplasty
A common malformation most often in large breed dogs
Imposes a pressure overload on the left ventricle
Definitive diagnosis requires M-mode ECHO
Severely affected dogs are more likely to die suddenly than to develop CHF
Management options are few, beta-blockade may be palliative
Isolated ventricular septal defects cause a diastolic murmur, shunts left to right and imposes a volume overload on the left atrium and left ventricle. Most VSD in small animals is severe with significant clinical consequences.
Which of the following describe concentric hypertrophy? Check all that apply.
Hypertrophy associated with normal chamber dimensions
Hypertrophy associated with chamber dilation
Consequence of pressure overloads
Consequence of volume overloads
Which of the following is FALSE regarding atrial septal defects?
A left-to-right ASD imposes a volume load on the right atrium and ventricle
If present, a murmur results from "functional pulmonic stenosis" not the shunt itself
ASDs are relatively uncommon
Can be repaired per-catheter using an occluding device or surgically under cardiopulmonary bypass
All of the above are true
All of the above are false
Which of the following is FALSE regarding AV valve dysplasia?
Can result in regurgitation or stenosis
Relatively common in cats
Tricuspid valvular dysplasia is relatively common in labradors
Severity is often mild
Regurgitation as a result of dysplasia requires cardiopulmonary bypass for correction
Cyanotic heart disease results when there is a shunt at one of the following: tricuspid stenosis, severe pulmonic stenosis, pulmonary hypertension associated with elevated pulmonary vascular resistance.
Eisenmenger's Physiology states that decreased pulmonary blood flow can result in vascular disease, a drop in pulmonary vascular resistance and shunt reversal.
Tetrology of Fallot is an uncommon cyanotic heart disease. Pulmonic stenosis, ventricular septal defect, right ventricular hypertrophy, and aortic malposition are all present. Definitive repair is under cardiopulmonary bypass. Phlebotomy/beta-blockade may be palliative.