Part 1 Anatomy & Physiology Formative Assessment

Chris Mulryan
Quiz by Chris Mulryan, updated more than 1 year ago
Chris Mulryan
Created by Chris Mulryan over 4 years ago
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Description

This is a practice assessment for people studying anatomical Topics

Resource summary

Question 1

Question
Which one of the following describes the cell membrane?
Answer
  • A bi-layer consisting of phospholipids
  • A structure that surrounds the nucleolus of a cell
  • A structure that secretes proteins
  • A structure containing enzymes within a cell
  • A structure capable of secreting hormones

Question 2

Question
In the G2 phase of the cell cycle which one of the following is occurring?
Answer
  • The centromeres line up at the distal aspects of the cell
  • The cell divides in a meiosis form
  • The cell membrane invaginates
  • DNA structures are checked for errors
  • DNA is synthesized

Question 3

Question
In the G0 phase of the cell cycle which one of the following is occurring?
Answer
  • DNA is checked
  • The cell is in a resting state
  • The cell actively dividing
  • Intracellular organelles are synthesized
  • DNA is copied

Question 4

Question
Chromosomes condense in which one of the following stages of a cells life span?
Answer
  • The G0 Phase
  • During cell division (Mitosis)
  • The G2 Phase
  • Chromosomes are always visible within a cell
  • The G1 Phase

Question 5

Question
Which one of the following is the function of a Ribosome?
Answer
  • To secrete proteins
  • To secrete lipid-based products
  • To degrade intra-cellular waste
  • To synthesize ADP
  • To secrete hormones

Question 6

Question
During metaphase of mitosis which one of the following is occuring?
Answer
  • Chromosomes condense within the nucleus of the cells
  • The condensed chromosomes a line in the centre​ of the cell
  • Nuclear membrane forms around each set of chromosomes
  • Chromosomes are pulled back into diffrent sides of the cell via the mitotic spindels
  • Mitotic spindles disslove

Question 7

Question
In terms of DNA which one of the following is a function of Ribose?
Answer
  • It is an enzyme copies DNA
  • It is one of the bases that makes up the DNA sequence
  • It is a sugar which attaches to a base pairs to make a nucleotide
  • It describes the bonds that form between the individual bases to form base pairs
  • It is a phosphate that enables the DNA sequence to build

Question 8

Question
Where in a cell is ATP synthesised within a cell?
Answer
  • Golgi Apparatus
  • Endoplasmic Reticulum
  • Plasma Membrane
  • Mitochondria
  • Cytoplasm

Question 9

Question
The function of an exocytic vesicle is best described by which one of the following?
Answer
  • A membrane-bound vesicle that is used to bring large products into the cell
  • A membrane-bound vesicle that is used to remove products from the cell
  • A vesicle containing microorganisms following phagocytosis
  • A vesicle that contains lysozymes
  • A vesicle that contains ATP

Question 10

Question
The smooth endoplasmic reticulum is responcible for which one of the following within a cell?
Answer
  • Manufacturining of protines
  • Manufacturing lipid based products
  • Manufacturing Robosomes
  • Degrading insulin
  • Conjugation of bile

Question 11

Question
Chordae tendineae are associated with which one of the following structures?
Answer
  • Left Atrium
  • Aortic & pulmonary valves
  • Right Atrium
  • Atrio ventricular valves
  • Intra vascular luminal valves

Question 12

Question
In health, which one of the follow helps to prevent blood from adhering to the inner surface of the heart?
Answer
  • The endocardium
  • The pericardium
  • The myocardium
  • The epicardium
  • Surfactant

Question 13

Question
Angiotensin Two has which one of the following effects on blood vessels?
Answer
  • Reduces permeability of blood vessles
  • Angiotensin two is an inactive precursor chemical
  • Produces vasoconstriction
  • Increases permeability of capillaries
  • Produces vasodilatation

Question 14

Question
Increased vagal tone will have which one of the following effects on the cardiovascular system?
Answer
  • Increase in heart rate
  • Increase in cardiac output
  • Reduction in cardiac output
  • Reduced time needed for the cardiac action potential to be undertaken
  • Vasoconstriction

Question 15

Question
Which one of the following best describes how the ventricles fill during diastole?
Answer
  • Mostly passive followed by a topping up from the atrial systole
  • Expansion of the pericardium creates a negative intraventricular pressure which draws blood in
  • From the aorta and pulmonary artery
  • The ventricles are filled entirely actively during atrial systole
  • Ventricular filling occurs during systole not diastole

Question 16

Question
Blood flow in the coronary vessels is maximal at which one of the following stages of the cardiac cycle?
Answer
  • Blood flow in the coronary vessels is not affected by the cardiac cycle
  • Early Diastole iso-volumetric relaxation
  • Ventricular systole
  • Late diastole (diastasis)
  • Atrial systole

Question 17

Question
Which one of the following combines with heart rate to produce the cardiac output equation?
Answer
  • Stroke volume
  • Pulse pressure
  • Mean arterial pressure
  • Systemic vascular resistance
  • Intra ventricular pressure

Question 18

Question
During repolisartaion of a cardiac myocyte, which one of the following describes the movement of potassium?
Answer
  • From inside the cell to outside the cell via potassium channels
  • From inside the cell to outside the cell via ATP-powered pumps
  • There is no movement of potassium during repolarisation, sodium is the main cation that is moved during this stage
  • From outside the cell to inside the cell via passive diffusion
  • From outside of the cell to inside the cell via ATP powered pumps

Question 19

Question
With regard to the AV node, which one of following is true?
Answer
  • It is the natural pacemaker of the heart
  • It is made of cardiac myocytes
  • It has no automaticity
  • It has a spontaneous discharge rate of 100 per minute
  • In health it is the only electrical connection between the atria and the ventricles

Question 20

Question
Which one of the following coronary vessels supplies the majority of the posterior wall of the heart?
Answer
  • The circumflex artery
  • The left anterior descending artery
  • Right coronary artery
  • Left main coronary artery
  • The coronary sinus

Question 21

Question
The tidal volume of the lung is described by which one of the following?
Answer
  • The amount of air that is moved when coughing
  • The amount of air that can be maximally inhaled in to the lungs
  • The speed at which air can be expelled from the lungs
  • The amount of air that is moved in a relaxed breath
  • The amount of air that is contained in the respiratory dead space

Question 22

Question
Gas exchange between the air in the lungs and the blood takes place in which one of the following locations?
Answer
  • Trachea
  • Visceral pleura
  • Bronchi
  • Terminal bronchioles
  • Alveoli

Question 23

Question
In the lungs what is the role that surfactant plays?
Answer
  • It facilitates the transport of carbon dioxide out of the blood
  • It helps to prevent collapse of and trauma the alveoli
  • It liquefies mucus
  • It assists with oxygen transport into the blood
  • It converts bound hydrogen ions to free hydrogen ions

Question 24

Question
Which of the following is part of the upper respiratory tract?
Answer
  • Oesophagus
  • Larynx
  • Pharynx
  • Trachea
  • Bronchi

Question 25

Question
The right lung is divided into how many lobes?
Answer
  • 1
  • 2
  • 3
  • 4
  • 5

Question 26

Question
Which of following best describes the role that the sternocleidomastoid muscles play in breathing?
Answer
  • There are the primary muscle that activates ventilation
  • They do not have a role in respiration
  • They are used in forced expiration
  • They are an accessory mussel of ventilation
  • They operate in parallel with each breath

Question 27

Question
The nasal hairs fulfil which one of the following functions within the respiratory tract?
Answer
  • Divide the nose into right and left chambers
  • Filter debris from inhales air
  • Warm air as it enters the sinuses
  • Are the part of the nose responsible for the sense of smell
  • Serve no functional purpose

Question 28

Question
The point at which the trachea divides into two separate bronchi is given which one of the following names?
Answer
  • Helix
  • Hilum
  • Bronchiole
  • Turbinate
  • Carina

Question 29

Question
Which one of the following describes the function of a goblet cell in the respiratory epithelium?
Answer
  • It secretes surfactant
  • It moves mucus towards the digestive tract
  • It moves mucus towards the alveolus
  • It secretes mucus
  • It stimulates a cough reflex when the airway is over filled

Question 30

Question
The parietal pleura can be described best by which one of the following?
Answer
  • The space in-between the two layers of pleura
  • The fluid that lubricates lung movement
  • The layer of the pleura that is attached to the lung
  • The layer of the pleura that is attached to the chest wall
  • The Space in between the lungs

Question 31

Question
The binding of a cholesterol based hormone to its receptor will often result initially in the production of which one of the following?
Answer
  • DNA Synthesis
  • G Protein Activation
  • Messenger RNA Synthesis
  • Release of vesicle bound hormones
  • Synthesis of membrane bound proteins

Question 32

Question
The term ‘secondary messengers’ refers to which one of the following?
Answer
  • In intracellular signalling process that occurs following peptide-based hormone binding to its receptor
  • In intracellular signalling process that occurs following steroid-based hormone binding to its receptor
  • The structural changes in a cell following the binding of any hormone
  • The manufacture of a secondary product in response to binding of any hormone
  • The activation of a hormone receptor by a non hormone product e.g. an autoantibody

Question 33

Question
Which one of the following hormones will increase blood glucose?
Answer
  • Insulin
  • Thyrotrophin
  • Somatostatin
  • Aldosterone
  • Glucagon

Question 34

Question
One of the properties of a cholesterol based hormone is that?
Answer
  • It is soluble in water
  • It does not require a carrier protein to get to its site of action
  • It can cross cell membranes easily
  • It is active even when protein bound
  • It can be manufactured from a single amino acid

Question 35

Question
How many functional layers can be identified on histological assessment of the adrenal cortex?
Answer
  • One
  • Two
  • Three
  • Four
  • Five

Question 36

Question
Beta cells in the islets of Langerhans secretes which one of the following hormones?
Answer
  • Insulin
  • Lipase
  • Somatostatin
  • Glucagon
  • Glycogen

Question 37

Question
The parafolicullar C cells of the thyroid gland secrete which one of the following hormones
Answer
  • Monoiodothyronine
  • Tetraiodothyronine
  • Paryathyroid hormone
  • Calcitonin
  • Calcitrol

Question 38

Question
Which one of the following is an example of a hormone released from the anterior pituitary gland?
Answer
  • Thyroid stimulating hormone
  • Anti diuretic hormone
  • Aldosterone
  • Melatonin
  • Thyroid releasing hormone

Question 39

Question
Which one of the following structures secretes cortisol?
Answer
  • Anterior Pituitary
  • Hypothalamus
  • Adrenal Cortex
  • Adrenal Medulla
  • Testis

Question 40

Question
Which one of the following defines a hormone?
Answer
  • A chemical that is secreted by a cell and has an effect on the cell that secreted it
  • A chemical that communicates across a synapse
  • A chemical that is secreted by a cell travels in the blood and has an effect on a cell remote from the site of secretion
  • A chemical that is secreted by a cell and has an effect on cells local to that cell
  • A chemical this is responsible for communication between cells of the immune system

Question 41

Question
Which one of the following is true about the pancreatic acini?
Answer
  • They secret pancreatic enzymes
  • They secrete insulin
  • They secrete glucagon
  • They secrete bile
  • They absorb glucose

Question 42

Question
What type of endothelial lining does the oesophagus have in healthy individuals?
Answer
  • Columnar
  • Ciliated
  • Squamous
  • Cuboidal
  • Pseudo Stratified

Question 43

Question
What is the name of the structure that supplies blood to the majority of the small intestine?
Answer
  • Pan Piniform Plexus
  • Superior mesenteric artery
  • Inferior mesenteric artery
  • Celiac artery
  • Gastric artery

Question 44

Question
Which one of the following substances is secreted by the gastric parietal cells?
Answer
  • Gastrin
  • Histamine
  • Mucus
  • Hydrochloric Acid
  • Stomatastatin

Question 45

Question
What is the name of the duct that drains bile from the left and right hepatic ducts?
Answer
  • Common Bile Duct
  • Pancreatic duct
  • Cystic Duct
  • Common Hepatic Duct
  • Sphincter of Oddi

Question 46

Question
What is the name given to the most distal part of the stomach?
Answer
  • Antrum
  • Greater Curve
  • Lesser Curve
  • Pyloris
  • Fundus

Question 47

Question
Which one of the following is the connection between the small and large intestine?
Answer
  • Myenteric Plexus
  • Pyloric Sphincter
  • Internal anal Sphincter
  • Cardiac Sphincter
  • Ileocecal valve

Question 48

Question
The longitudinal muscle layer in the wall of the gastro-intestinal tract serves which one of the following functions?
Answer
  • Close the segment of intestines circumferentially
  • Propel the contents of the intestine forwards
  • Compress the intestine
  • Maintain integrity of the intestine lumen
  • Help to sense the consistence of intestinal contents

Question 49

Question
Which one of the following describes the action of bile in the gastrointestinal tract?
Answer
  • It causes fats to coat villi
  • It emulsifies fats braking it down in to smaller globules
  • It binds fat to proteins to facilitate its absorption
  • Bile is a waste product of hepatic function and has no effect on fats
  • It reduces fats in to fatty acids

Question 50

Question
Pancreatic secretions and bile have to pass through which one of the following structures before entering the gastrointestinal tract?
Answer
  • Hepatic Sinusoid
  • Ampulla
  • Plyloric Sphincter
  • Space of Diss
  • Sphincter of Oddi
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