Detection and Identification of Microorganisms

Description

Techniques in the Clinical Laboratory
mona1nyc
Quiz by mona1nyc, updated more than 1 year ago
mona1nyc
Created by mona1nyc over 8 years ago
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Resource summary

Question 1

Question
In an outbreak situation molecular epidemiology is used to______
Answer
  • ascertain whether the isolates have a common or independent source.
  • ascertain whether the isolates have a evolved from control specimens
  • identify novel SNP

Question 2

Question
In molecular testing of microorganisms what are the analyses?
Answer
  • genome, transcriptome, proteome
  • genome, transcriptome, antibodies
  • lipids, transcriptome, proteome
  • sugars, lipids, amino acids

Question 3

Question
Match an organism with a resistance gene target.
Answer
  • Staphylococcus aureus mecA; Enterococcus: vanA, vanB, and vanC; M.tuberculosis: katG, inhA
  • Staphylococcus aureus vanA, vanB, and vanC; Enterococcus: mecA; M.tuberculosis: katG, inhA
  • Staphylococcus aureus vanA, vanB, and vanC; Enterococcus: katG, inhA; M.tuberculosis: mecA
  • Staphylococcus aureus katG, inhA ; Enterococcus: vanA, vanB, and vanC; M.tuberculosis: mecA

Question 4

Question
What are the primary molecular methods used in clinical microbiology laboratory?
Answer
  • PCR, real time PCR, reverse transcriptase PCR, pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE)
  • PCR, real time PCR, reverse transcriptase PCR,
  • PCR, real time PCR, reverse transcriptase PCR, sequencing,
  • Bisulfite sequencing, PCR, real time PCR, reverse transcriptase PCR, Bisulfite sequencing,

Question 5

Question
Which of the following organisms is bardes to lyse?
Answer
  • Mycobacteria and fungi
  • Parasites and Bacteria
  • Parasites and Mycoplasma
  • Fungi and Mycoplasma

Question 6

Question
Removal of RNases is essential for analysis of with of the following targets?
Answer
  • RNA
  • DNA
  • Proteins
  • Ribosomes
  • Centromere

Question 7

Question
Which of the following PCR inhibitors is present in the sputum?
Answer
  • Acidic polysaccharides
  • Hemoglobin
  • Heparin
  • Amino acids
  • Aluminum

Question 8

Question
It is easier to isolate nucleic acid form the stool the the plasma.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 9

Question
In a PCR procedure a sensitivity control is used to show____
Answer
  • lower level of detection
  • lack of contamination
  • quantity of positive product
  • lack of inhibition

Question 10

Question
B. pertussis and B. parapertussis target genes are IS481 and IS1001.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 11

Question
Which of the following is a genotypic method for typing organisms?
Answer
  • Antibiogram patterns
  • Pulsed field gel electrophoresis
  • Serotyping
  • Bacteriophage typing

Question 12

Question
Pulsed field gel electrophoresis has been performed on two isolates of Escherichia coli that have been isolated from the blood of newborns in the same neonatal unit. The banding pattern of the two isolates differed by two bands. Which of the following is the correct interpretation of these results?
Answer
  • The isolates are indistinguishable.
  • The isolates are closely related.
  • The isolates are possibly related.
  • The isolates are different.

Question 13

Question
Define Epidemic
Answer
  • rapidly spreading outbreak of an infectious disease
  • a disease that sweeps across wide geographical areas
  • collection and analysis of environmental, microbiological, and clinical data

Question 14

Question
Define Pandemic
Answer
  • a disease that sweeps across wide geographical areas
  • rapidly spreading outbreak of an infectious disease
  • collection and analysis of environmental, microbiological, and clinical data

Question 15

Question
Define Epidemiology
Answer
  • collection and analysis of environmental, microbiological, and clinical data
  • a disease that sweeps across wide geographical areas
  • rapidly spreading outbreak of an infectious disease

Question 16

Question
Primary resistance mutations _______
Answer
  • affect drug sensitivity but may slow viral growth
  • increase drug sensitivity
  • increase drug uptake

Question 17

Question
Secondary-resistance mutations ______
Answer
  • compensate for the primary-resistance growth defects
  • do not compensate for the primary-resistance growth defects
  • cancel primary-resistance growth defects

Question 18

Question
Which of the following is the molecular target for most epidemiological investigations of Mycobacterium tuberculosis?
Answer
  • katG
  • inhA
  • IS6110
  • IS481

Question 19

Question
Which of the following typing methods has high typing capacity, discriminatory power, reproducibility, and moderate ease of use?
Answer
  • Plasmid analysis
  • Ribotyping
  • PCR-RFLP
  • PFGE

Question 20

Question
DNA is isolated from a test organism and cut with restriction enzymes. The fragments are ligated to adapters that are complementary to primers that are added to perform a PCR. In a second PCR, selective primers are used to amplify some of the amplicons produced in the first PCR. Finally, the products of the second PCR are separated by gel electrophoresis and analyzed. Which of the following methods was described?
Answer
  • Restriction fragment length polymorphism
  • Amplified fragment length polymorphism
  • Pulsed field gel electrophoresis
  • Arbitrarily primed PCR

Question 21

Question
In the interpretation of pulsed field gel electrophoresis patterns, what is the maximum number of bands that can differ between two organisms before those organisms are determined to be different?
Answer
  • 2
  • 3
  • 5
  • 7

Question 22

Question
A PCR assay that uses short primers that amplify random sequences found throughout the genome of the test organism is what variation of PCR?
Answer
  • Arbitrarily primed
  • Amplified fragment length polymorphism
  • Repetitive extragenic palindromic
  • Enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus

Question 23

Question
The ability of a typing method to distinguish between unrelated strains is which of the following criteria?
Answer
  • Typing capacity
  • Discriminatory power
  • Reproducibility
  • Ease of interpretation

Question 24

Question
When a typing method is repeated and the results are the same each time, the method has high:
Answer
  • ease of test performance
  • discriminatory power
  • typing capacity
  • reproducibility

Question 25

Question
Which of the following genes is a target in molecular-based assays and confers resistance to vancomycin in the enterococci?
Answer
  • inhA
  • mecA
  • vanA
  • gyrA

Question 26

Question
A PCR assay on DNA isolated from a nasopharyngeal swab was performed with the following results: amplification using primers to IS481 was positive and using primers to IS1001 was negative. All controls were acceptable. Which of the following organisms was present in this sample?
Answer
  • Bordetella pertussis
  • Bordetella parapertussis
  • Bordetella holmesii
  • Legionella pneumophila

Question 27

Question
A PCR assay using primers specific for the autolysin (lytA) gene was performed on a sputum specimen from a 10-year-old girl. The specimen was positive, and all controls were acceptable. Which of the following is the best interpretation of these results?
Answer
  • Definitive diagnosis of Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae is present but clinical significance questionable
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis detected and girl should be isolated
  • Patient has Chlamydophila pneumoniae pneumonia

Question 28

Question
Which of the following molecular-based assay and detected organism combinations has been FDA-approved?
Answer
  • NASBA for hepatitis C virus
  • TMA for Mycobacterium tuberculosis
  • Hybridization protection assay for group A streptococci
  • Sequencing for Neisseria gonorrhoeae

Question 29

Question
PCR with RFLP analysis and reverse hybridization of the 5′ untranslated region of hepatitis C virus is the principle of which of the following commercial assays?
Answer
  • TRUGENE
  • Cleavase fragment length polymorphism
  • Amplicor HCV
  • Inno-LiPA

Question 30

Question
HIV genotyping is performed for which of the following reasons?
Answer
  • Monitor development of antiretroviral drug resistance
  • Confirmation of HIV infection
  • Quantitate amount of HIV in the patient
  • Determine source of HIV

Question 31

Question
Which of the following genes is the target in molecular-based assays that are used to quantitate the amount of HIV in a patient?
Answer
  • Protease
  • gag
  • Hemaglutinin
  • ctx-m

Question 32

Question
Which of the following molecular-based assays is FDA-approved for the detection of human papillomavirus in endocervical specimens?
Answer
  • qPCR
  • NASBA
  • TMA
  • Hybrid capture

Question 33

Question
Which of the following organisms was one of the first targets for the development and implementation of molecular-based assays used for direct detection of the organism in a clinical specimen?
Answer
  • Mycoplasma pneumoniae
  • Treponema pallidum
  • Chlamydia trachomatis
  • Legionella pneumophila
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