A patient complains of pain on the lower left side of her back. A radiograph confirms a hernia passing posterolaterally immediately superior to the iliac crest. This hernia passes through the
Triangle of auscultation
Triangle of Calot
Greater sciatic foramen
During a triathalon biking accident, a rider fell and landed with the handle bar of her bike forced upward into her right axilla. Subsequently while swimming in another triathalon event she found that her right arm tired so badly during the swimming portion that she could barely finish the event. During examination it was found that movements involving adduction, medial rotation and extension of her arm were particularly weak and affected her swimming stroke. The nerve injured was the [blank_start]thoracodorsal nerve[blank_end]
After a penetrating wound in the area of the posterior axillary fold a patient had weakness in extension and adduction of the arm. Which muscle is likely involved? [blank_start]Latissimus Dorsi[blank_end]
While wandering around in the dark in an unfamiliar home, a visitor accidentally walks into a plate glass door. The door shatters and a shard of glass severs the posterolateral aspect of the woman's neck. Examination reveals that the she is unable to elevate the tip of her shoulder on the injured side. The nerve injured the [blank_start]accessory nerve[blank_end]
A person receives a laceration along the anterior border of the trapezius muscle in the neck and subsequently the point of his shoulder (scapula) sags and he has some difficulty fully abducting his arm. What nerve appears to have been severed? The [blank_start]Accessory Nerve[blank_end]
A 33-year-old woman underwent partial thyroidectomy for hyperthyroidism in which the thyroid failed to take radioactive iodine. She is noted to have some hoarseness of voice 1 month later. Which of the following is the more likely explanation?
Endotracheal tube trauma to the vocal cords
Injury to the cricoid cartilage
Injury to the thyroid cartilage
Injury to the recurrent laryngeal nerve
A 15-year-old boy is eating a fish dinner and inadvertently has a bone ”caught in his throat." He complains of significant pain above the vocal cords. Which of the following nerves is responsible for carrying the sensation for this pain?
Superior laryngeal nerve
Recurrent laryngeal nerve
Spinal accessory nerve
A 25-year-old woman underwent surgery for a thyroid nodule. Two months later, she complains of dryness of skin and muscle spasms.
Which of the following is the most likely explanation?
Low serum magnesium
Low serum calcium
Low serum potassium
Low serum sodium
Low serum glucose
A 54-year-old woman has undergone partial thyroid resection due to a nontender cold nodule that likely represents cancer. One week after surgery, she complains of twitching of the right arm and "spasms" of both hands. Which of the following is the most likely explanation?
Anxiety after surgery
Effects of anesthesia
Parathyroid glands removed
Vagal nerve injury
A 2-year-old girl is diagnosed with torticollis involving the right (sternocleidomastoid m.) SCM.
Which of the following describes the most likely anatomical change?
Head flexed forward in the midline
Head rotated to the right
Head rotated to the left
Head extended in the midline plane
A 24-year-old football player receives a blow to the left skull, and the team physician finds weakness of the left SCM. Which of the following associated findings is most likely to be seen in this patient?
Weakness of the masseter muscle
Decreased sensation of the ipsilateral face
Decreased tearing from the ipsilateral eye
Weakness of the trapezius muscle
A clinician is palpating the anterior neck of a patient who has been involved in a motor vehicle accident and notes the laryngeal prominence.
Which of the following describes the anatomical structure that corresponds to this prominence?
First tracheal ring
A 45-year-old woman is undergoing thyroid surgery for suspected thyroid cancer. The surgeon has taken a midline approach and encounters significant bleeding below the isthmus of the thyroid gland. Which of the following is the likely cause of the bleeding?
Penetration into the trachea
Superior thyroid artery
Inferior thyroid artery
Thyroid ima artery
Inferior laryngeal artery
An emergency cricothyroidotomy is thought to be warranted due to airway collapse and severe laryngoedema. Which of the following is the most accurate description of the location of the cricothyroid membrane?
Immediately superior to the thyroid cartilage
Immediately inferior to the thyroid cartilage
lmmediately inferior to the cricoid cartilage
Just deep to the isthmus of the thyroid gland
Immediately inferior to the hyoid bone
Following thyroid surgery, it was noted that a patient frequently aspirated fluid into her lungs. Upon examination it was determined that the area of the piriform recess above the vocal fold of the larynx was numb. What nerve may have been injured?
External branch of the superior pharyngeal
Internal branch of the superior laryngeal
In the process of doing an axillary lymph node dissection in a 50 year-old patient, the surgery resident cleans the space between the pectoralis major and minor muscles, in an attempt to remove all of the lateral pectoral lymph nodes. Upon recovery it is noted that the patient‘s lower pectoralis major is paralyzed. The nerve most likely injured is the [blank_start]Medial Pectoral Nerve[blank_end]
Medial Pectoral Nerve
Postoperative examination revealed that the medial border and inferior angle of the left scapula became unusually prominent (projected posteriorly) when the arm was carried forward in the sagittal plane, especially if the patient pushed with outstretched arm against heavy resistance (e.g., a wall). What muscle must have been denervated during the axillary dissection?
The prognosis in breast cancer is poorer as more proximal lymph nodes are found to have cancerous cells in them.
Spread of cancer to which of the following axillary nodes would indicate the worst prognosis?