203: LECT 6

Kaaj Pala
Quiz by Kaaj Pala, updated more than 1 year ago
Kaaj Pala
Created by Kaaj Pala almost 4 years ago
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Description

Cell injury and reversible effects on cells.

Resource summary

Question 1

Question
Which features of ionising radiation is incorrect?
Answer
  • X/gamma rays have energy to break bonds.
  • Damage to DNA bases.
  • Water is the main target for ionising radiation.
  • Water breaks into H and OH radical with OH and ionising radiation go on to break DNA strands.

Question 2

Question
What are all the effects of death of endothelial cells
Answer
  • Ulceration
  • Scarring
  • Atrophy (shrinkage) of surrounding tissue
  • Inflammation and chronic pain

Question 3

Question
Which is not a feature of UV radiation to damage of DNA?
Answer
  • Damage to DNA bases where adjacent C-T become linked.
  • The DNA strand will break.
  • Misrepair generates C to T point mutations leading to cancer development
  • More damage leads to death of keratinocytes (peeling sunburn)

Question 4

Question
The chemical factor to damage to DNA -Alkylation is:
Answer
  • Fungal product aflatoxin B1 accumulates in poorly stored food (in underdeveloped countries).
  • Metabolites react covalently (alkylate) with proteins to cause liver injury ; acutely at high doses.
  • Metabolites alkylate DNA hence G to T mutations = liver cancer= chronic and low doses.
  • Folic acid further damages the DNA.
  • The crystals puncture the membranes.

Question 5

Question
Which is a feature of biological dietary deficiency - DNA?
Answer
  • Autoimmune gastritis lack intrinsic factor prevents B12 absorption.
  • Proteins cause liver injury acutely
  • Inflammasomes generate severe inflammation.
  • Hydrogen peroxide will be detoxifed to catalase to oxygen and water.

Question 6

Question
Which is not a feature of chemical damage to lipids?
Answer
  • Cells take up crystals into lysosomes.
  • Crystals puncture lysosome membrane.
  • Damaged mitochondria cannot reduce oxygen completely.
  • Inflammasomes activated.

Question 7

Question
ROS and RNS are not free radicals?
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 8

Question
Which is not an oxidative reaction in the chemical factor of damage to lipids?
Answer
  • Superoxide (O2-) - detoxed by superoxide dismutase
  • Hydrogen peroxide - detoxed by catalase
  • Oxygen therapy - exposure to premature babies
  • Hydroxyl radical - OH.

Question 9

Question
Which of these does not contribute to injury of cell via ROS?
Answer
  • Oxygen therapy
  • Inflammation
  • Megablastic anaemia
  • Damaged mitochondria
  • UV radiation
  • Radiotherapy

Question 10

Question
How does acute haemorrhagic pancreatitis occur? Biological lipase factor
Answer
  • Proteolytic cleavage of ECM proteins
  • The p53 transcription factor
  • Damage to exocrine cells which synthesise digestive enzymes or block ducts that these enzymes travel to duodenum by
  • Prolonged heat exposure

Question 11

Question
Which is not a consequence of heat exposure in proteins?
Answer
  • High fever
  • Heat stroke
  • Malignant hyperthermia
  • Acute haemorrhagic pancreatitis

Question 12

Question
Is the Maillard reaction the enzymatic addition of sugars to proteins?
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 13

Question
Which of the following is not a result of the reaction occurring between reducing sugars and amino groups?
Answer
  • Reversible early stage Schiff bases
  • Irreversible rearrangements to Amadori products.
  • Further rearrangements to advanced glycation end products (AGE).
  • Nrf transcription factors.

Question 14

Question
How do AGE injure cells?
Answer
  • Inhibit protein function
  • Cross linking and precipitating proteins (blocking axon transport in neurons)
  • Generating ROS
  • Binding to receptors of AGE (RAGE) on vascular and inflammatory cells that reduce blood flow and cause inflammation.
  • The enzymatic addition of sugars to proteins.

Question 15

Question
Does AGE accumulate during ageing, diabetes, and chronic inflammation?
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 16

Question
When and where does proteolytic cleavage occur during inflammation when proteins are damaged? Biological factor
Answer
  • Collagen in arthritis
  • Elastin in emphysema
  • Laminin during cancer invasion
  • Blood vessel damage behind eye during retinopathy

Question 17

Question
Which factor does acute intracellular oedema (hydropic change) not affect the cells regulation of ion concentration in cytoplasm?
Answer
  • Plasma membranes permeable to Na+ hence K+ leaks out (Na+ in) hence cell swells.
  • ATP synthesis disrupted, Na+/K+ ATPase inhibited
  • Na+ pump damaged
  • Cell shrinks due to excess water loss

Question 18

Question
Does abnormalities in capacity of cells to recycle components result in the non-accumulation of products such as fat and glycogen?
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 19

Question
When there are fatty changes in liver cell what does not happen when the triglycerides accumulate?
Answer
  • In normal liver cells they cannot metabolise increased fatty acids conc. coming from adipose tissue (diabetes)
  • In abnormal liver cells they have a decreased ability to oxidise fatty acids (alcohol damage)
  • In abnormal liver cells have decreased ability to export triglycerides compounded with lipid-acceptor proteins i.e. VLDL leading to malnutrition, kwashiorkor - not enough proteins and more fat.
  • In normal liver cells they cannot transport more of the fat from the tissue to urine and therefore leading to blockage.
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