History GCSE AQA B: Modern World History - International Relations: Conflict and Peace in the 20th Century - Topic 2: Peacemaking 1918-19 and the League of Nations

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My revision notes for AQA History B GCSE exam

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TimelineFrom armistice to AbyssiniaJan 1918: Wilson's 14 points publishedNov 1918: Armistice signed by GermanyJan 1919: Peacemakers meet in Paris; influenza epidemic in EuropeJun 1919: Treaty of VersaillesNov 1919: USA votes not to join the LeagueApr 1921: Reparations figure set1926: Germany joins the League1929: Wall Street Crash1931: Manchurian Crisis1933: Japan and Germany leave the League1935: Abyssinian CrisisHow did the Treaty of Versailles establish peace?World War One ended with the armistice on 11th November 1918. The Entente Cordiale powers had defeated Germany, but at a price. The war had mostly been fought in France and Belgium, resulting in their land being devastated. Military losses for Britain was around 1 million, for France around 1.4 million and for the USA around 100,000. the wounded was totaled to around 20 million as well as losing around 6 million due to the influenza epidemic, this is included in the 20 million. Due to the war their was a lot of ill feelings towards Germany, which led to the Treaty of Versailles and the establishment of the League of Nations.The Paris Peace Conference 32 states attended No defeated powers attended the conference - as well as Russia as they were in the middle of a civil war The main decisions were taken by the 'Big Three': George Clemenceau for France, Woodrow Wilson for the USA and lastly David Lloyd George for Britain The aims of the three differed from each others - it is important to consider them to understand the final treaty that resulted George Clemenceau Had seen Germany invade France twice in his lifetime, in 1870 and in 1814 He was under great pressure from the French public who wanted revenge on Germany Most of the war had been fought in France His main aim at the Paris Peace Conference was to gain security for France by preventing another attack on its frontiers This meant making Germany weak and difficult for their recovery He aimed to do this by disarming Germany, regaining Alsace and Lorriane and making Germany pay for their damage (reparations) David Lloyd George Led Britain to victory in the First World War At the end 1918 he won the general election - In his campaign he used slogans like 'Hang the Kaiser' and 'Make Germany Pay' He did not share these views (his party did) His main aim was to preserve the supremacy of the British Navy and to prevent a Treaty that was so harsh that Germany would never accept it He thought that if Germany's punishment was too harsh, the German people may turn to Communism He also realized that Britain depended on trade for its wealth This meant that that the recovery of German economy was important for Britain He was the compromise view at the conference Woodrow Wilson Published fourteen points during the war in January 1918 - Germany showed no interest and carried on fighting was an idealist - believed that lasting peace was not possible without the introduction of new standards into public life He did not understand the strong feelings that France and Britain had against Germany as the USA had only been in the war since 1917 As the conference went on, Wilson began to give into Clemenceau views He put all of his faith in the success of the League of Nations The terms of the Treaty of Versailles LAMB L - Land - loss of land - Alsace and Lorraine was restored to France - the Polish Corridor was restored A - Army - Limited to 100,000 men - Conscription was banned - tanks and military air crafts were forbidden - the navy was limited to 15,000 men and 6 battleships and no submarines - the Rhineland was also demilitarized M- Money - Germany had to pay £6.6 billion reparations - Germany was originally given 42 years to pay it however the amount was reduced in 1929 and it stopped paying in the 1930's B - Blame - Germany was forced to accept that they were guilty for causing the war (War guilt clause - Article 231) Germany's objections to the Treaty of Versailles Diktat - the Germans called the Treaty this as they were forced to sign it Loss of Land - lost 72,500km2 of land - 1.5 million German-speaking people were in Poland control ( Lloyd George opposed this) it went against the principle of self-determination - one of the fourteen points Military restrictions - Germany always had pride in their armed forces, they claimed that 100,000 men was too small to defend their country if they were under attack, it also was not enough to keep order in Germany War Guilt - the German people felt that they had been blamed for what the Kaiser and other countries had done - the Kaiser no longer ruled Germany and a new democratic government had been set up - they were disgraced and humiliated by this clause Reparations - the reparations were far to much for Germany to pay Strengths and weaknesses of the Treaty of Versailles Brought peace to Europe set up an international organisation, the League of Nations, to preserve the peace left Germany with many grievances if Germany ever recovered from the war, it would be determined to get rid of what it saw as the unfair parts of the Treaty - this could lead to future problems President Wilson had put too much faith in the power of the League of Nations to solve these problems When the US government refused to sign the treaty and did not join the League, the whole settlement became less secure

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