study guide

Quiz by rebekah.jackson1, updated more than 1 year ago


Quiz on study guide, created by rebekah.jackson1 on 05/05/2014.
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Question 1

The patterned ways in which power is legitimately used in a society to regulate behavior referred to as:
  • Social structure
  • Foundational organization
  • Political organization
  • Social differences
  • Elitism

Question 2

Fear of witchcraft accusations would best be categorized as:
  • A formal mechanism of justice.
  • An informal mechanism of social control
  • A use of psychology by authorities to control unwanted society members
  • Irrational, since witches do not exist in any society
  • The best way to avoid being the victim of a witch or sorcerer

Question 3

A society's political organization is primarily related to:
  • The ecology of the area that they inhabit.
  • The degrees of access individuals and groups have to basic material resources.
  • The presence of powerful individuals within the society
  • The political organization of neighboring societies
  • Whether or not they were ever colonized

Question 4

An important way of resolving conflict in band-level societies involves all of the following except:
  • Ridicule
  • Individuals moving from one band to another
  • Contests between individuals
  • Public confession
  • Imprisonment

Question 5

In a society that is characterized by age grades:
  • Chiefs control all of the critical material resources
  • People follow a well-ordered progression through a series of age-related life stages.
  • Rituals are rarely necessary
  • People who lack the necessary skills to progress to the next grade are cast out of society
  • People are very unlikely to make significant investments in warfare

Question 6

Which of the following best characterizes "ethnic groups"?
  • A group of families living in a well-defined geographical location
  • A group of individuals who are, at some level, all biologically related to each other
  • A group of people who all speak the same language
  • A gorup of people who all seem to others to look like each other
  • A group of people who view themselves as sharing an identity that separates them from others in society

Question 7

The tribal "big man" is an inherited position of leadership
  • True
  • False

Question 8

A tribal society:
  • Is a creation of Western colonial administrators and not naturally occurring
  • Imagines all of its members to be related by kinship
  • Is characterized by peaceful relations among its different segments
  • Lacks any social mechanisms to hold its different units together
  • Is constantly in a state of warfare

Question 9

A religious cosmology, or world view, functions primarily to:
  • Give meaning and order to the lives of believers
  • Differentiate primitive from civilized societies
  • Increase technical control over the physical environment
  • Increase the upper class' control of the lower class
  • Keep a society in a constant state of conflict

Question 10

Prayer and magic are most likely to be used when:
  • People are superstitious
  • The outcome of an event is uncertain
  • People are not Christians
  • The outcome of an event is certain and the success of the technique is assured
  • People have sufficient time to carefully consider an event

Question 11

Use of the world "myth" is problematic in anthropology because:
  • Many things we call myths are true
  • Since "myth" is generally used to talk about ancient culture, it is more appropriate to history or archaeology
  • We tend to use it to describe others' beliefs that we consider false but rarely apply it to our own beliefs
  • "Myths" generally refer to origin stories but religious tories cover many subjects
  • The central characters of "myths" are generally hero figures, but understanding these isn't very important in anthropology

Question 12

The Christian notion that reenacting the Last Supper stands for communion with God is an example of:
  • Superstition
  • Science
  • Prophecy
  • Magic
  • Symbolism

Question 13

A primary function of rites of intensification is to:
  • Help an individual through a personal crisis
  • Help a young man in his search for a guardian spirit
  • Regulate male-female conflict within a society
  • Reinforce the values and norms of the community and strengthen group identity
  • Restrain the ghosts of dead people from taking revenge on the living

Question 14

The purpose of divination is to:
  • Get in contact with the divine
  • Find water
  • Prove that God exists
  • Find something hidden
  • Cast a spell on an enemy

Question 15

A sorcerer who manipulates the fingernails of an intended victim to cause harm to that person is using:
  • Mythological magic
  • Contagious magic
  • Ecological magic
  • Psychological reductionism
  • Superstitious magic

Question 16

In anthropology, the term "priest" refers to:
  • Anyone who considers themselves a true believer in any religion
  • A member of the Catholic clergy
  • A religious leader who claims to be able to personally converse with God
  • Someone who has made a life-long study of religion
  • A person formally elected, appointed, or hired to a full-time religious office

Question 17

_____ is a religious order that contains a combination of different religious
  • Atheism
  • Mannerism
  • Super religion
  • Philosophical religions
  • Syncretism

Question 18

A type of a religious spirit thought of - "As a figure having the thought processes and emotions similar to humans" is known as
  • Anthropomorphic
  • Anthropopsychic
  • Ghosts
  • Zoomorphic
  • Naturalistic

Question 19

A nativistic religious movement is:
  • An attempt by an economically powerful group to maintain its control of society.
  • A religious movement that looks to the re-establishment of a past golden age
  • A series of rituals designed to determine who is and who is not a true member of a group
  • An ecclesiastical movement to convert nonbelievers
  • An attempt by the state to impose state religion on its citizens

Question 20

Which of the following is the most important function of marriage?
  • Agreement between parties to maximize sexual competition
  • Creation of a stable environment in which to raise children
  • Arrangement between families for economic gain
  • Accord between individuals so that they can obtain political status
  • Ritual ordained by religion so that the church can endure

Question 21

If you live in a society that practices exogamy, you must:
  • Have more than one husband or wife
  • Get married (no one is allowed to be a single adult)
  • Marry someone of your own social group
  • Marry someone of a different social group
  • Marry someone chosen by your mother's parents

Question 22

One of the exceptions to the almost universal prohibition on brother/sister marriage was among:
  • The Toda of India
  • The Tiwi of Australia
  • The ancient Hawaiian royalty
  • The Kipsigis of East Africa
  • Medieval European royalty

Question 23

In a system of cross-cousin marriage, a man would be required to marry:
  • His mother's sister's daughter
  • His mother's brother's daughter
  • His father's brother's daughter
  • A woman with whom he has no blood relations
  • A member of his own village

Question 24

When a society practices polygyny:
  • Most men will have more than one wife
  • Some men will have more than one wife
  • Some women will have more than one husband
  • Most women will have more than one husband
  • Some men will have more than one wife and some women will have more than one husband

Question 25

If your society has avunculocal residence, then, after marriage, a new couple will be expected to live with:
  • The husband's family
  • The wife's family
  • The chief's family
  • Their maternal grandmother's family
  • The husband's mother's brother's family

Question 26

Neolocal residence is when a couple can choose to live with either the wife or the husband's family
  • True
  • False

Question 27

The practice of _____ is when a man's wife ies, and the deceased woman's sister is given to him as a wife
  • Levirate
  • Polygyny
  • Incestuous union
  • Sororate
  • Polyandry

Question 28

Which of the following post marital residential pattern is usually practiced by people of matrilineal lineage?
  • Patrilocal
  • Matrilocal
  • Neolocal
  • Avunlocal
  • Matrilineal

Question 29

Margaret Mead's study of the Arapesh, Mundugamor, and Tchambuli showed that:
  • Women in all cultures have the same personality traits
  • Only in the US are women primarily concerned with child care
  • The relationship between gender and personality varies with cultural expectations
  • Where women work, they are more likely to be aggressive
  • Where women's qualities are valued, men's qualities are likely to be devalued

Question 30

Men in Andalusia, Spain generally view women as:
  • Angels
  • Lustful
  • Naive
  • Trustworth
  • More intelligent than men

Question 31

The hijra subculture:
  • Has no connection to the rest of Indian society
  • Is ignored by Indian society
  • Was introduced by the British into Indian society
  • Has disappeared from Indian society
  • Has a ritual role in Indian society

Question 32

One of the world's most sexually repressed societies is the:
  • Inuit
  • Irish of Inis Beag
  • Peasant villages of Southern Spain
  • Arapesh of New Guinea
  • United States of America

Question 33

In gender studies, the idea of the public/private dichotomy refers to the notion that:
  • Behavior of both men and women is different in the public sphere than in the private sphere
  • Men act differently toward women in the public than they do in private
  • Women are able to maintain more power over men if their actions are public than if they are private
  • Private relationships between men and women are threatened by public disclosure
  • Societies are divided into a private world dominated by women and a public world dominated by men

Question 34

Which of the following is common in horticultural societies?
  • Men's cults are closed to women
  • Women earn their living by market trading
  • Women control the cash crop, but men control subsistence crops
  • Men are likely to adopt innovations rapidly, but women are not
  • Women are key religious leaders

Question 35

An alternative gender role in Tahiti is known as _____
  • Berdache
  • Koho basia
  • Mahu
  • Xanith
  • Hijra

Question 36

The idea that gender is "constructed" means that:
  • Most cultures have few expectations about behavior as it relates to gender
  • In a free society, like the US, we can take on any gender characteristics we like
  • Masculine and feminine are essentially the same in all cultures, and any differences across cultures are relatively superficial
  • Gender is established by social norms and values rather than biology
  • Gender traits are best analyzed with reference to material items, especially the built enviroment

Question 37

According to the readings in the Elvio book, "The Haitian article" states that Haitians believe that Zombies are the living dead raised from their graves by malevolent ____
  • French Catholic priests
  • Nuer sorcerers
  • Voodoo sorcerers
  • Traditional African priests
  • The devil in the Christian faith

Question 38

According to the Haitians article the case of Clavius who returned to his sister and claimed to be a zombie was unique because
  • He looked just like a regular person
  • There is medical record that he actually died at an American directed hospital
  • Proved that Zombies have good memory
  • He remember his death and burial

Question 39

Which of the following correctly defines "bride service"?
  • A ritual done in many cultures in which a man pledges his daughter to the son of a friend
  • Payments made by the family of the bride to the family of the groom
  • Payments made to cover the cost of rituals associated with marriage
  • Labor preformed by the groom for the family of the bride
  • Gifts given to a newly married couple, particularly grifts associated with preparing and serving food

Question 40

Gender has to do with our biological sexual characteristics while our sex is the cultural role assigned to men and women
  • True
  • False

Question 41

Which of the following is true of fraternal polyandry in Tibet?
  • All the brothers are equal in authority
  • The wife is supposed to favor the elder brother sexually
  • It is not important to link children biologically to particular brothers
  • All of the above

Question 42

As the Kayapo of the Xingu River Basin in Souther America demonstrate, people in non-industrial societies:
  • Do not understand their enviroment
  • Have very simple methods for managing their resources
  • Would be better off with modern technology
  • Are committed to becoming modernized
  • Have adapted to their environments without the use of modern science

Question 43

Historically, the greatest source of environmental degradation has been:
  • Slash and burn farming practiced by traditional peoples
  • Consumer desires and energy needs in wealthy nations
  • Slash and burn farming practiced by modern peasants
  • Traditional agriculture done without soil erosion control techniques
  • Collection and burning of wood for cooking fires in large cities in poor nations

Question 44

The major areas of pastoralism are found in:
  • East Africa, the Australian desert, and the Canadian arctice
  • North AMerica, the highlands of South America, and the Pacific Islands
  • East Africa, Southwest Asia, and the Subarctic
  • Eastern Europe, Southwest Asia, and North Africa
  • South American tropical forests, the Australian desert, and North Africa

Question 45

A critical form of cultural knowledge trypically passed from fathers to elder sons in Maasai society is:
  • Hunting techniques in a marginal environment
  • Environmental knowledge and how livestock is moved
  • Market trade and economic partners
  • Traditional healing techniques
  • Means of contacting the supernatural and asking for abundance

Question 46

Which of the following best illustrates transhumant pastoralism?
  • The male cattle pastoralists of East Africa have two settlements and move their herds between these, while the women stay in the permanent dwelling year-round
  • The Saami reindeer herders and their families move across the frozen landscape during the winter months and in the summer take jobs as day laborers
  • The Yarahmadzai of Iran move with the entire village during the year from settlement to settlement, never knowing where they will be next
  • The Quechua herd their alpacas from one pasture to another as needed, depending on the climate. They never move their residence.

Question 47

Rural cultivators who produce for the subsistence of their households but are also integrated into larger, more complex state societies are called:
  • Farmers
  • Horticulturalists
  • Agriculturalists
  • Peasants
  • Peons

Question 48

Agriculture is characterized by a:
  • Simple technology, such as the use of a digging stick
  • Low population densities when compared with other food getting strategies
  • Relatively complex techniques of water and soil control
  • Slashing and burning of forest cover
  • Nomadic movement of village populations

Question 49

According to "When Brothers Share a Wife," polyandry in Tibet
  • is considered detrimental to social structure
  • is based on the need for population growth
  • consists of brothers marrying the same woman
  • causes early death for many women

Question 50

The yield per person per unit of land is known as the population density
  • True
  • False

Question 51

Which of the following was true of hunter-gatherer societies
  • resources equally distributed
  • primarily polygamous
  • centralized leadership
  • all of the above
  • none of the above

Question 52

Which of the following was true of hunter-gatherer societies
  • resources equally distributed
  • primarily polygamous
  • centralized leadership
  • all of the above
  • none of the above

Question 53

musha is the money sent back to the village by migrant labor
  • true
  • false

Question 54

the number of individuals supported persquare mile of earth is called maximum capacity of the land
  • true
  • false

Question 55

how is pastoralism different from ranching
  • pastoralists raise their animals on semi-arid grasslands whose vegetation is not a human food source, while ranchers feed their livestock grain, a human food source
  • while ranchers see their animals of sources of meat and wealth, pastoralists, see their animals as spirits
  • among the ranching groups animals are fed only grass while in pastoralist groups animals are fed human food on special occasions
  • ranchers often consider their animals as part of their family whereas vegetation in a pastoral society animals are associated with the spirit world

Question 56

the integration of resources, labor, and capital into a global network is called ___
  • production
  • globalization
  • sedentism
  • transhumant tradition
  • democracy

Question 57

in a typical, traditional japanese family, according to 'who needs love,' the husband
  • does not tell his wife that he likes her or thank her for what she does for him
  • spends very little time with the children
  • spends little time talking to his wife
  • all of the above
  • none of the above

Question 58

the critical elements of any economic system are:
  • reciprocity, redistribution, and market exchange
  • production, distribution and consumption
  • currency, capital, and exchange
  • government, exchange and consumption
  • agriculture, trade and taxation

Question 59

in economics, economizing behavior is
  • behavior designed to save money for a household
  • choosing to buy a generic rather than a name brand product
  • attempting to increase profits by investing savings
  • only present in capitalistic market economies
  • making choices in ways believed to provide the greatest benefit

Question 60

in economics, economizing behavior is
  • behavior designed to save money for a household
  • choosing to buy a generic rather than a name brand product
  • attempting to increase profits by investing savings
  • only present in capitalistic market economies
  • making choices in ways believed to provide the greatest benefit

Question 61

material goods, natural resources or information used to create other goods or information is known as the
  • econoimc system
  • consumption resources
  • distributive resources
  • productive resources
  • economizing behavior

Question 62

among the lacandon maya, an extensive cultivating society:
  • indivuduals have the right to buy and sell any land use
  • individuals retain right to land they have cleared even if they leave it fallow
  • individuals and families must petition the chief yearly for an allotment of land
  • individuals may not buy and sell land but heads of families may do so
  • individuals may only gain access to land through inheritance

Question 63

among extensive cultivators, one of the key factors that determine whether land will be considered exclusive and defended is
  • contact with western cultures
  • the types of crops planted
  • the presence of irrigation works
  • the presence of warrior societies
  • the relationship of land and population

Question 64

peasants generally
  • own the land that they farm
  • support a wealthy, landowning class
  • have higher standards of living than horticultralists
  • become landowners if the work hard enough
  • survive only by doing part time factory work for wages

Question 65

one critical economic difference between a firm and a household is
  • firms look for profit in their cash transactions, households rarely do
  • firms have no obligations to the communities in which they are found; households have many
  • firms have grow with relative ease, but the structure of households limits their growth
  • firms may expand their size through hiring new members but the membership of a household is fixed
  • firms usually behave in a manner that is economically rational, households rarely do

Question 66

marcel mauss, and many other anthropologists, theorized than an important function of gift giving is to:
  • hold societies together
  • expand th technological base of a society
  • build up the economic resources of some families at the expense of other families
  • provide an outlet for the innate human desire to give and receive gifts
  • build up the power of the state

Question 67

generalized reciprocity is the dominant form of exchange in:
  • foraging societies
  • pastoral societies
  • chiefdoms
  • peasant agricultural societies
  • state societies

Question 68

for the trobriand islanders, the central part of the kula trade is:
  • the opportunity to prove their manhood by taking long sea voyages
  • trading for types of food that are unavailable on their home island
  • trading for bracelets and armbands
  • the opportunity to meet potential mates
  • the after-parties that accompany all trading

Question 69

kluckhohn showed when the navajo traded with outsiders
  • they were extremely careful to be honest and fair
  • they engaged in silent trade, placing the goods they wanted to trade in the open and accepting whatever their trading partners gave
  • they were particularly interested in jewelry and less interested in money
  • it was considered morally acceptable to deceive
  • they generally got taken

Question 70

which of the following might a chief at a potlatch be likely to do?
  • ask god for forgiveness of his sins
  • brag about his wealth and power
  • praise the wealth and power of the people he has invited
  • demand that his followers worship him
  • demand that those whom he invited give him gifts

Question 71

which of the following best describes the economics of potlatch of the tribes of the pacific northwest coast
  • an irrational destruction of valuable property
  • an imitation of european parties and feasting
  • the most fundamental reason why these tribes have such a low standard of living
  • a method increasing productivity and distributing food and goods to a large dispersed population
  • an expression of a cultural value that emphasizes charity and helping the poor

Question 72

in mexico, a cargo is
  • the amount of a handicraft that can be produced in a single day
  • the requreiment that women carry water and cook food for the family
  • the quantity of a crop that can be carried from field to village
  • the obligation of a son-in-law to provide for his wife's parents
  • a religious office held for a year and requiring substantial financial outlay

Question 73

today's market exchange system can be characterized by the phrase, 'caveat emptor,' which means;
  • let the buyer beware
  • all trade is equal
  • you break it, you buy it
  • fair trade is empty trade
  • heed all warnings

Question 74

which of the following is one of the fundamental attributes of capitalism
  • people in capitalist societies sell their labor for wages in order to survive
  • government plays a very little role in the regulation of the economy
  • all people in capitalist societies are involved in capitalism
  • ownership of capital resources is spread roughly evenly throughout the population
  • people receive approximately the full value of their labor

Question 75

according to patricia gadsby ('the intuit paradox') the northern food chain is threatened by
  • global warming
  • land development
  • industrial pollutants
  • all of the above
  • none of the above

Question 76

as shown in 'the inuit paradox' the eskimo did well on
  • low protein and low fat diets
  • high protein and high fat diets
  • minimal carbohydrates
  • excessive carbohydrates

Question 77

a practice, value, or aspect of social organization that results in lessening of the true disparities of wealth in a society is called a(n) ___
  • productivity mechanism
  • fairness mechanism
  • leveling mechanism
  • foraging mechanism
  • market mechanism

Question 78

which kinship system is the matrilineal equivalent of the omaha system?
  • hawaiian
  • iroquois
  • eskimo
  • sudanese
  • crow

Question 79

kinship is important to the study of anthropology because
  • it explains political rights and obligations for all industrialized societies
  • it determines the economic system of all societies
  • it plays the key role in determining rights and obligations in nonindustrial societies
  • it determines the foundation of all market economies in industrial socities
  • it is the only social institution present in foraging and tribal societies

Question 80

a correct conclusion from the chapter regarding kinship in modern, complex societies is that kinship;
  • has no place in these societies
  • is more important than other forms of belonging, such as citizenship
  • is more important as a basis of social relationships than in more traditional societies
  • plays an important but not central role in establishing rights and relationships
  • is more important among lower than the upper class

Question 81

all of the following are basic functions of kinship except:
  • it reveals who is biologically related to whom
  • it defines the members of society on which an individual can depend for help
  • it sets up the transfer of property from one to another generation
  • it sets up the succession within family as social positions are transferred across generations
  • it serves as a way of structuring society

Question 82

in a system of unilineal descent
  • the grandfather is recognized as the only father
  • descent groups, which include relatives from both the father's and the mother's side, are formed
  • a household is composed of a man, his wife, his sons, and their children
  • a man is not allowed to marry his cousin
  • an individual belongs to the descent group of either the mother or the father, but not both

Question 83

traditionally in korean villages, the eldest son inherited most of his parents' property. in erturn, he was required to:
  • educate his brothers and sisters at the university
  • worship his parents as ancestors after their death
  • sell the remaining property at the best price he could get
  • live in a lavish life style to bring prestige to his family
  • live in relative poverty, assuring that brothers and sisters were well cared for

Question 84

all of the following correctly express the differences between a lineage and a clan except:
  • members of lineage can trace their common ancestors, but members of a clan cannot
  • members of a lineage tend to live together or near each other, whereas members of a clan tend to be spread over different local communities
  • members of a lineage recognize a blood tie, whereas members of a clan do not
  • lineages have primarily domestic and economic functions, whereas clans more frequently have political and religious functions
  • lineages consist of fewer members than do clans

Question 85

in modern capitalist societies, people rarely get much of their identity through work
  • true
  • false

Question 86

there are ____ types of the reciprocracy exchange system has
  • 2
  • 4
  • 3
  • 7
  • 5

Question 87

the nuer are a patrilineal society in which clans adn lineages function as a type of political structure. this is called:
  • a segmentary lineage system
  • a segementary corporate system
  • a unilineal political system
  • a bilateral lineage system
  • political usufruct rights

Question 88

in a matrilineal society:
  • there is no concern over who the child's biological father is
  • women occupy the politically important positions
  • inheritance and succession pass from the mother's brother to her son
  • men are afraid of women
  • marriages are extremely stable

Question 89

in a system of double descent, as among the yako of nigeria:
  • kinship is of no importance, and one can call on whichever individuals one wants for aid
  • an individual belongs to the patrilineal group of the father and the matrilineal group of the mother
  • kinship is important, but there are no corporate kin groups
  • kinship is doubly important, because there are no other units of cooperation
  • each married couple makes a join decision about whose kin they will live with

Question 90

a kinship system in which the establishment of rights and obligations is based on both maternal and paternal lines is called a:
  • bilateral system
  • patrilineal system
  • clan system
  • lineage system
  • kindred system

Question 91

a kinship system in which the establishment of rights and obligations is based on both maternal and paternal lines is called a:
  • bilateral system
  • patrilineal system
  • clan system
  • lineage system
  • kindred system

Question 92

in northern india, much of the undelrying logic of the kinship sytem is based on all the following except:
  • relative age
  • heirarchy
  • flexibility
  • patrilineality
  • bifurcation

Question 93

the system used for classifying kin in the us includes distinctions based on:
  • generation, relative age, and collaterality
  • sex of linking relative, bifurcation, and generation
  • generation, consanguineal versus affinal kin, and sex of linking realtive
  • bifurcation, relative age, and generation
  • consanguineal versus affinal kin, gender and generation

Question 94

in comparison to the us, in japan married couples are expected to
  • be more patient with each other
  • have a great deal in common
  • like each other
  • all of the above

Question 95

parallel cousins are found in the iroquois system of kinship and are defined as
  • mothers sisters children or fathers brothers children
  • motehrs brothers children or fathers sisters children
  • mothers brothers children or fathers brothers children
  • mothers sisters children or fathers sisters children
  • cousins that are descended fro the same ancestor

Question 96

one critical factor that distinguishes anthropology from other fields of study is:
  • its emphasis on rigorous experimentation and analysis of data
  • its exclusive focus on non-western cultures
  • its use of theories aof biological evolution to explain human behavior
  • its interest in describing humankind throughout time and in all parts of the world
  • its focus on the discovery of a single human nature

Question 97

the sapir-whorf hypothesis suggest that:
  • the best way to study language is with subjects in a laboratory
  • the vocabulary and structure of a language influence how its speakers perceive reality
  • the ability tot use language determines an individuals intelligence
  • formal education increases vocabulary
  • there is no connection between language and other aspects of culture

Question 98

one of the critical goals of cultural anthropology as an academic discipline is to:
  • describe, analysis and explain different cultures
  • increase the level of culture in particular human societies
  • place large numbers of cultural anthropologists in political offices
  • determine the direction of human evolution
  • increase the number of cultural anthropology students in universities

Question 99

to say that anthropology is holistic means that anthropologists are particularly interested in:
  • objects and acts regarded as holy by various peoples
  • the whole personality of any particular individual
  • the integration of biological, sociocultural, and environmental factors in explaining human behavior
  • studying every culture in the world
  • the efforts to find holes in particular theories

Question 100

to say that anthropology is holistic means that anthropologists are particularly interested in:
  • objects and acts regarded as holy by various peoples
  • the whole personality of any particular individual
  • the integration of biological, sociocultural, and environmental factors in explaining human behavior
  • studying every culture in the world
  • the efforts to find holes in particular theories

Question 101

which of the following correctly identifies the sub-disciplines of anthropology?
  • archaeology, anthropometry, cultural anthropology, paleontology, and cultural relativity
  • archaeology, cultural anthropology, cognitive anthropology, ethno-history, and linguistics
  • archaeology, ethno-history, anthropometry, structural anthropology, and cultural anthropology
  • archaeology, cultural anthropology, physical anthropology, applied anthropology, and linguistics
  • archaeology, phonology, medical anthropology, development studies, and cultural anthropology

Question 102

accoridng to alra deeb and jessica winegar ('the september 11 effect on anthropology'), middle east anthropologists have come under greater surveillance and suspicion primarily with respect to research related to the
  • war in iraq
  • war in afghanistan
  • conflict in israel-palestine
  • war on terror

Question 103

which of the following correctly compares culture and society?
  • while all human beings have culture, not all cultures are also societies
  • while all human beings live in societies, not all societies are cultured
  • while culture refers to art and literature, society refers to production technologies and religions
  • each person born into a group is automatically a member of its culture, but people must be invited into societies
  • while culture refers to values, traditions, and lifeways, society refers to social relationships, statuses and roles

Question 104

culture in anthropology refers to:
  • civilized behavior such as good manners
  • complex social structures including the development of cities and centralized governments
  • a highly developed individual taste in the arts, literature, and music
  • the way humans adapt to the enviromemnt and give meaning to their lives
  • the presence of religion, art, and literature in some societies

Question 105

an emic approach to the study of culture is one that emphasizes:
  • the description of a culture from the point of view of a member of the culture
  • the comparison of similar parts of different cultures
  • studying the agricultural technology and ecological adaptation of a culture
  • the notion of a cultural evolution
  • search for general laws or princples that can be applied to all human cultures

Question 106

anthropologists healther horst and daniel miller studied high levels of cellphone use among jamaicans in two different communities. which of thefollowing statements best illustrates why jamaicans use cell phones so regularly?
  • they are used to engage in long casual conversations about daily life
  • they are used primarily to create social networks and request needed resources
  • they are used as emergency technology in case the individual is in any kind of danger
  • they are used primarily among young people who are dating via cell phone

Question 107

according to deeb and winegar, palestine is the number one cause of persecution of faculty in the classroom
  • true
  • false

Question 108

human's capacity for culture is based on our unique biology
  • true
  • false

Question 109

early anthropologists who relied on travelers and missionaries for their fieldwork data were called:
  • armchair anthropologists
  • novices
  • native anthropologists
  • secondhand anthropologists
  • early scholars

Question 110

lewis henry morgan and edward tylor were influenced deeply by the evolutionary theories of:
  • franz boas
  • charlies darwin
  • bronislaw malinowski
  • margaret mead
  • carolus linnaeus

Question 111

how would you describe lewis henry morgan's and edward tylor's evolutionary theories
  • it is the study of how humans have changed from simple to complex communication and transportation systems
  • it is the study of how societies have harnessed more energy for production over time
  • it is the study fo how the human body has changed physically from earlier to later forms, sometimes even changing species
  • it is the study of the history of human society from simple technology and socila institutions to complex ones
  • it is the study of ow native people classify their natural world

Question 112

lewis henry morgan and edward tylor classified small-scale societies as:
  • savage
  • barbarian
  • primitive
  • childlike
  • civilized

Question 113

all of the following are associated with franz boas, except
  • he was a critic of evolution
  • he was the first professor of anthropology at columbia university
  • he was a champion of human rights
  • he did his fieldwork in the trobriand islands
  • he trained a generation of us fieldworkers

Question 114

applying ones own cultural standards of value, worth and morality to another culture is called:
  • ethnocentrism
  • participant observation
  • cultural relativism
  • ethnography
  • postmodernism

Question 115

studies of the ways in which children learn language show that:
  • a language must be consciously taught; otherwise a child will not learn it
  • children in different societies learn to speak their native languages at different ages because some langauges are harder to learn than others
  • formal education is requried for a child to learn to speak his or her native language grammatically
  • human beings have an inborn predisposition for learning language and will speak grammatically even if not taught to do so
  • boys learn to speak much earlier than girls

Question 116

boas nsisted that anthropologists must value a culture on its own terms. this idea is called:
  • logical postiivism
  • postmodernism
  • phenomenology
  • cultural relativism
  • dualism

Question 117

which of the following has been a hallmark of american anthropology?
  • ethnocentrism
  • ethnology
  • participant observation
  • multiculturalism
  • holism

Question 118

how is malinowski's approach to the study of cultures different from boas?
  • malinowski was an evolutoinist and boas was a critic of evolutionism
  • their approachers are similar, except that franz boas did not actually carry out fieldwork
  • boas focused on teh study of child-rearing, while malinowski focused on the study of history and body measurements
  • malinowski emphasized the notion of function in society, whileboas focused on teh study of history and adaptation of culture
  • boas focused on the study of history and adaptation, adn malinowski focused on the study of child-rearing

Question 119

there is evidence that exposing people to foul smells can affect
  • their attitude towards gays
  • the way they vote
  • their attitudes towards ethnic minorities
  • all of the above

Question 120

which of the following emotions seem to be the most important in swaying a jury?
  • disgust
  • anger
  • fear
  • pride

Question 121

the function of an institutional review board(irb) is to:
  • certify and approve departments of anthropology
  • suggest disciplinary actions against researchers who violate ethical standards
  • approve, monitor and review all university research involving human subjects
  • review articles submitted to academic journals prior to publication
  • fund anthropological research

Question 122

which of the following isnot a subsystem of language?
  • symbology
  • phonology
  • morphology
  • syntax
  • semantics

Question 123

according to 'where fat is a mark of beauty,' a stay in teh fattening room in nigeria is
  • essential to every youth's cultural education in parts of nigeria
  • undertaken between the ages of five and seven
  • a rite of passage between maidenhood and womanhood
  • traditional for nigerian brides

Question 124

among the efik of nigeria, a woman's 'rotundity' is a sign of
  • good health
  • prosperity
  • allure
  • all of the above

Question 125

a child raised outside of human society and culture would be:
  • entirely normal except for a lack of language
  • rapidly able to participate in normal culture once allowed a chance
  • innnocent, unable to lie, cheat or dissemble
  • craftier, more logical, and more violent than a cultured individual
  • completely unable to understand culture

Question 126

one of the earliest definitions of human culture is that 'complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, law, morals, customs, and any other capabilities acquired by man as a member of society.' who introduced this definition?
  • margaret emad
  • pierre bourdieu
  • sir edward tylor
  • franz boas
  • bronislaw malinowski

Question 127

anthropologists consider that all of the following are characteristics of culture except:
  • practiced by as few as one individual
  • patterned and integrated
  • in some way adaptive
  • made up of learned behaviors
  • involving symbols

Question 128

in english, bit and pit have different meansings. thus the /b/ and /p/ are:
  • words
  • sounds
  • morphemes
  • structures
  • phonemes

Question 129

theoretical perspective is critical in anthropology because:
  • theory does not tolerate diverse opinions
  • it allows us to explore difference perspectives
  • anthropology must be similar to other sciences
  • not every researcher is capable of understand culture
  • anthropology is a democratic science

Question 130

the theory of sociobiology views a culture as
  • the visible expression of genetic coding
  • as a way for members of society to understand who they are
  • the mechanism that drives individuality and self-expression
  • the result of little other than its own history
  • a result of the sum total of personalities that makes it up

Question 131

social birth refers to
  • the biological act of giving birth through a social ritual
  • the ceremonial transition from childhood to adolescence
  • the spiritual awakening of an individual through the complete of his or her designated rite of passage
  • the point where a person is considered a human being and a member of human society
  • the event where women collectively give birth in a social setting

Question 132

in which society are some children believed to be born chichuru(spirit children) if they have physical abnormalities?
  • western brazil
  • northeastern ghana
  • northern africa
  • eastern south america
  • southwestern europe

Question 133

bound morphemes differ from free morphemes in which of the following ways?
  • the former have strictly one meaning, the latter have more than one meaning
  • the former occur either in nouns or in verbs but never in both, while the latter may occur in both
  • the former never stand alone as complete words; the latter do
  • the former can be pronounced only one way, while the latter may have more than one pronunciation
  • the former exist in all human languages; the latter exist in English only

Question 134

anthropologists consider that the concept of humaness and the recognition of human status is
  • a biological designation
  • a sociological achievement
  • a cultural designation
  • patterned and integrated throughout cultures
  • a cultural universal

Question 135

which of the following best defines the concept of enculturation?
  • it is the process of being born and raised within a human society
  • it is a ritual in which the individual is formally introduced to society
  • it is the process of learning to be a member of a particular cultural group
  • it is the outcome of two cultures coming into contact and adapting to each other
  • it is the sum of all behaviors that an individual learns in childhood

Question 136

human speech is infinitely productive. this means that
  • humans can combine words into new, meaningful utterances that they have never heard before
  • human beings never become tired of talking
  • the more human beings talk, the more productive they are economically
  • every normal adult can produce an infinite number of sounds
  • human speech is always directed toward some productive purpose

Question 137

all of the following are characteristics that are emphasized in inuit enculturation except:
  • violence
  • cooperation
  • emotional restraint
  • physical acuity
  • independence

Question 138

an anthropological perspective that focuses on culture as the principal force in shaping the typical personality of a society is called:
  • sociobiology
  • culture and personality theory
  • personification theory
  • structuralism
  • symbolic anthropology

Question 139

charles hockett argues that the following two steps were critical in the evolution of human language:
  • productivity and displacement
  • displacement and blending
  • blending and dual structure
  • blending and duality of patterning
  • duality and pattern and producitivity

Question 140

anthropologists who are interested in the ways in which people in different cultures classify their world often use a theory called:
  • structuralism
  • interpretive anthropology
  • ethnoscience
  • functionalism
  • sociobiology

Question 141

structural anthropology is largely concerned with:
  • the ways in which people build houses and public buildings
  • the ways that biology and culture interact
  • the ways in which different parts of asingle culture affect each other
  • the ways in which members of different cultures classify and understand their environments
  • underlying patterns of thought common to all humanity

Question 142

human children appear to be pgrammed to learn language instinctively before the age of
  • 6 months
  • 3 years
  • 6 years
  • 12 years
  • 21 years

Question 143

all of the following are characteristics of cultural symbols except:
  • they contain codnensed meanings
  • they are used to create meaning
  • they can be both objects and ideas
  • they are used to store information
  • they are easily defined

Question 144

many linguists argue that there is a universal grammar. this is:
  • a set of words that means the same thing in every language
  • a set of principles, conditions and rules that underlie all languages
  • a single word orderin which different parts of speech must appear in all languages
  • a simple way of speaking that can be understood by everyone all over the world
  • an alphabet in which all languages and the sounds that make them up can be written

Question 145

nacirema ritual centers around:
  • health and cleanliness
  • pigs and warfare
  • canoes and trading
  • garden magic
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