Question 1
Question
What is an Independent Variable?
Answer

A variable thought to be affected by changes in an independent variable. You can think of this variable as an outcome.

A variable thought to be the cause of some effect. This term is usually used in experimental research to denote a variable that the experimenter has manipulated.

A variable thought to predict an outcome variable. This is basically another term for independent variable.

A variable thought to change as a function of changes in a predictor variable. This term could be synonymous with 'dependent variable' for the sake of an easy life.
Question 2
Question
What is a Dependent variable?
Answer

A variable thought change as a function of changes in a predictor variable. This term could be synonymous with 'dependent variable' for the sake of an easy life.

A variable thought to predict an outcome variable. This is basically another term for independent variable.

A variable thought to be the cause of some effect. This term is usually used in experimental research to denote a variable that the experimenter has manipulated.

A variable thought to be affected by changes in an independent variable. You can think of this variable as an outcome.
Question 3
Question
What is a Predictor variable?
Answer

A variable thought change as a function of changes in a predictor variable. This term could be synonymous with 'dependent variable' for the sake of an easy life.

A variable thought to predict an outcome variable. This is basically another term for independent variable.

A variable thought to be the cause of some effect. This term is usually used in experimental research to denote a variable that the experimenter has manipulated.

A variable thought to be affected by changes in an independent variable. You can think of this variable as an outcome.
Question 4
Question
What is an Outcome variable?
Answer

A variable thought to predict an outcome variable. This is basically another term for independent variable.

A variable thought to be the cause of some effect. This term is usually used in experimental research to denote a variable that the experimenter has manipulated.

A variable thought to be affected by changes in an independent variable. You can think of this variable as an outcome.

A variable thought to change as a function of changes in a predictor variable. This term could be synonymous with 'dependent variable'.
Question 5
Question
Variables can be split into categorical and continuous, and within these types there are different levels of measurement: Within Categorical (entities divided into distinct categories): What is a Binary variable?
Answer

The same as nominal variable but the categories have a logical order (eg. whether people got a fail, a pass, a merit or a distinction in their exam).

There are more than two categories (eg. whether someone is an omnivore, vegetarian, vegan, or fruitarian).

There are only two categories (eg. dead or alive)
Question 6
Question
Variables can be split into categorical and continuous, and within these types there are different levels of measurement: Within Categorical (entities divided into distinct categories): What is a Nominal variable?
Answer

There are only two categories (eg. dead or alive)

There are more than two categories (eg. whether someone is an omnivore, vegetarian, vegan or fruitarian)

The same as nominal variable but the categories have a logical order (eg. whether people got a fail, a pass, a merit or a distinction their exam)
Question 7
Question
Variables can be split into categorical and continuous, and within these types there are different levels of measurement: Within Categorical (entities divided into distinct categories): What is an Ordinal variable?
Answer

The same as a nominal variable but the categories have a logical order (eg. whether people got a fail, a pass, a merit or a distinction in their exam)

There are only two categories (eg. dead or alive)

There are more than two categories (eg. whether someone is an omnivore, vegetarian, vegan or fruitarian).
Question 8
Question
What is the First stage of the research process?
Answer

Analyse the data: look at the data visually and by fitting a statistical model to see if it
supports your predictions (and therefore your theory). At this point you should return to
your theory and revise it if necessary.

Generating a research question: through an initial observation (hopefully backed up by some
data).

Collect data to test the theory: decide on what variables you need to measure to test your
predictions and how best to measure or manipulate those variables

Generate hypotheses: break your theory down into a set of testable predictions.

Generate a theory to explain your initial observation
Question 9
Question
What is the Second stage of the research process?
Answer

Analyse the data: look at the data visually and by fitting a statistical model to see if it
supports your predictions (and therefore your theory). At this point you should return to
your theory and revise it if necessary.

Generating a research question: through an initial observation (hopefully backed up by some
data).

Collect data to test the theory: decide on what variables you need to measure to test your
predictions and how best to measure or manipulate those variables.

Generate a theory to explain your initial observation.

Generate hypotheses: break your theory down into a set of testable predictions
Question 10
Question
What is the Third stage of the research process?
Answer

Generate hypotheses: break your theory down into a set of testable predictions

Generating a research question: through an initial observation (hopefully backed up by some
data).

Generate a theory to explain your initial observation.

Analyse the data: look at the data visually and by fitting a statistical model to see if it
supports your predictions (and therefore your theory). At this point you should return to
your theory and revise it if necessary.

Collect data to test the theory: decide on what variables you need to measure to test your
predictions and how best to measure or manipulate those variables
Question 11
Question
What is the Fourth stage of the research process?
Answer

Generating a research question: through an initial observation (hopefully backed up by some
data).

Generate hypotheses: break your theory down into a set of testable predictions.

Analyse the data: look at the data visually and by fitting a statistical model to see if it
supports your predictions (and therefore your theory). At this point you should return to
your theory and revise it if necessary.

Generate a theory to explain your initial observation.

Collect data to test the theory: decide on what variables you need to measure to test your
predictions and how best to measure or manipulate those variables.
Question 12
Question
What is the Fifth Stage of the Research Process?
Answer

Analyse the data: look at the data visually and by fitting a statistical model to see if it
supports your predictions (and therefore your theory). At this point you should return to
your theory and revise it if necessary.

Generating a research question: through an initial observation (hopefully backed up by some
data).

Generate a theory to explain your initial observation.

Generate hypotheses: break your theory down into a set of testable predictions.

Collect data to test the theory: decide on what variables you need to measure to test your
predictions and how best to measure or manipulate those variables.
Question 13
Question
What is the fundamental difference between experimental and correlational research?
Answer

In a word, causality. In experimental research we manipulate a variable (predictor, independent variable) to see what effect it has on another variable (outcome, dependent variable).

This manipulation, if done properly, allows us to compare situations where the
causal factor is present to situations where it is absent.

Therefore, if there are differences between these situations, we can attribute cause to the variable that we manipulated. In
correlational research, we measure things that naturally occur and so we cannot attribute cause but instead look at natural covariation between variables.

All of the above.
Question 14
Question
What is the level of measurement for the following variable: The number of downloads of different bands' songs on iTunes?
Answer

This is a discrete ratio measure. It is discrete because you can download only whole songs, and it is ratio because it has a true and meaningful zero (no downloads at all).

This is a nominal variable. Bands can be identified by their name, but the names have no meaningful order. The fact that Norwegian black metal band 1349 called DISCOVERING STATISTICS USING SPSS PROFESSOR ANDY P FIELD 2 themselves 1349 does not make them better than British boyband hasbeens 911; the fact that 911 were a bunch of talentless idiots does, though.

This is an ordinal variable. We know that the band at number 1 sold more than the band at number 2 or 3 (and so on) but we don’t know how many more downloads they had. So, this variable tells us the order of magnitude of downloads, but doesn’t tell us how many downloads there actually were.
Question 15
Question
What is the level of measurement for the following variable: The names of the bands that were downloaded?
Answer

This is an ordinal variable. We know that the band at number 1 sold more than the band at number 2 or 3 (and so on) but we don’t know how many more downloads they had. So, this variable tells us the order of magnitude of downloads, but doesn’t tell us how many downloads there actually were.

This is a discrete ratio measure. It is discrete because you can download only whole songs, and it is ratio because it has a true and meaningful zero (no downloads at all).

This is a nominal variable. Bands can be identified by their name, but the names have no meaningful order. The fact that Norwegian black metal band 1349 called DISCOVERING STATISTICS USING SPSS PROFESSOR ANDY P FIELD 2 themselves 1349 does not make them better than British boyband hasbeens 911; the fact that 911 were a bunch of talentless idiots does, though.
Question 16
Question
What is the level of measurement for the following variable: Their positions in the iTunes download chart?
Answer

This is a discrete ratio measure. It is discrete because you can download only whole songs, and it is ratio because it has a true and meaningful zero (no downloads at all).

This is an ordinal variable. We know that the band at number 1 sold more than the band at number 2 or 3 (and so on) but we don’t know how many more downloads they had. So, this variable tells us the order of magnitude of downloads, but doesn’t tell us how many downloads there actually were.

This is a nominal variable. Bands can be identified by their name, but the names have no meaningful order. The fact that Norwegian black metal band 1349 called DISCOVERING STATISTICS USING SPSS PROFESSOR ANDY P FIELD 2 themselves 1349 does not make them better than British boyband hasbeens 911; the fact that 911 were a bunch of talentless idiots does, though.
Question 17
Question
What is the level of measurement for the following variable: The money earned by the bands from their downloads?
Answer

This variable is continuous and ratio. If the drummer buys 100 g of cocaine and the singer buys 1 kg, then the singer has 10 times as much.

This variable is continuous and ratio. It is continuous because money (pounds, dollars, euros or whatever) can be broken down into very small amounts (you can earn fractions of euros even though there may not be an actual coin to represent these fractions).

This variable is categorical and nominal: the name of the drug tells us something meaningful (crack, cannabis, amphetamine, etc.) but has no meaningful order.
Question 18
Question
What is the level of measurement for the following variable: The weight of drugs bought by the bands with their royalties?
Answer

This variable is categorical and nominal: the name of the drug tells us something meaningful (crack, cannabis, amphetamine, etc.) but has no meaningful order.

This variable is continuous and ratio. If the drummer buys 100 g of cocaine and the singer buys 1 kg, then the singer has 10 times as much.

This variable is continuous and ratio. It is continuous because money (pounds, dollars, euros or whatever) can be broken down into very small amounts (you can earn fractions of euros even though there may not be an actual coin to represent these fractions).
Question 19
Question
What is the level of measurement for the following variable: The types of drugs bought by the bands with their royalties?
Answer

This variable is categorical and nominal: the name of the drug tells us something meaningful (crack, cannabis, amphetamine, etc.) but has no meaningful order.

This variable is continuous and ratio. If the drummer buys 100 g of cocaine and the singer buys 1 kg, then the singer has 10 times as much.

This variable is continuous and ratio. It is continuous because money (pounds, dollars, euros or whatever) can be broken down into very small amounts (you can earn fractions of euros even though there may not be an actual coin to represent these fractions).
Question 20
Question
What is the level of measurement for the following variable: The phone numbers that the bands obtained because of their fame?
Answer

This variable is categorical and nominal too: the instruments have no meaningful order but their names tell us something useful (guitar, bass, drums, etc.).

This variable is categorical and nominal too: the phone numbers have no meaningful order; they might as well be letters. A bigger phone number did not mean that it was given by a better person.

This variable is categorical and binary: the people dishing out their phone numbers could fall into one of only two categories (male or female).
Question 21
Question
What is the level of measurement for the following variable: The phone numbers that the bands obtained because of their fame?
Answer

This variable is categorical and nominal too: the instruments have no meaningful order but their names tell us something useful (guitar, bass, drums, etc.).

This variable is categorical and nominal too: the phone numbers have no meaningful order; they might as well be letters. A bigger phone number did not mean that it was given by a better person.

This variable is categorical and binary: the people dishing out their phone numbers could fall into one of only two categories (male or female).
Question 22
Question
What is the level of measurement for the following variable: The gender of the people giving the bands their phone numbers?
Answer

This variable is categorical and binary: the people dishing out their phone numbers could fall into one of only two categories (male or female).

This variable is categorical and nominal too: the phone numbers have no meaningful order; they might as well be letters. A bigger phone number did not mean that it was given by a better person.

All of the above.
Question 23
Question
What is the level of measurement for the following variable: The instruments played by the bands members?
Answer

This is a continuous and ratio variable. The amount of time could be split into infinitely small divisions (nanoseconds even) and there is a meaningful true zero (no time spent learning your instrument means that, like 911, you can’t play at all).

This variable is categorical and binary: the people dishing out their phone numbers could fall into one of only two categories (male or female).

This variable is categorical and nominal too: the instruments have no meaningful order but their names tell us something useful (guitar, bass, drums, etc.).
Question 24
Question
What is the level of measurement for the following variable: The time they spent learning to play their instruments?
Answer

This variable is categorical and nominal too: the instruments have no meaningful order but their names tell us something useful (guitar, bass, drums, etc.).

This variable is categorical and binary: the people dishing out their phone numbers could fall into one of only two categories (male or female).

This is a continuous and ratio variable. The amount of time could be split into infinitely small divisions (nanoseconds even) and there is a meaningful true zero (no time spent learning your instrument means that, like 911, you can’t play at all).
Question 25
Question
Say I own 857 CDs My friend has written a computer program that uses a webcam to scan the shelves in my house where I keep my CDs and measure how many I have. His program says that I have 863 CDs. Define measurement error. What is the measurement error in my friend's CD counting device?
Answer

Measurement error is the difference between the true value of something and the numbers used to represent that value. In this trivial example, the measurement error is 6 CDs. In this example we know the true value of what we’re measuring; usually we don’t have this information, so we
have to estimate this error rather than knowing its actual value.

Measurement error is there is no difference between the value of something and the numbers used to represent that null value. In this detailed example, the measurement value is 6 CDs. In this example we know the true value of what we’re measuring; usually we don’t have this information, so we have to estimate this error rather than knowing its actual value.

Neither of the above.
Question 26
Question
In 2011 I got married and we went to Disney Florida for our honeymoon. We bought some
bride and groom Mickey Mouse hats and wore them around the parks. The staff at Disney are
really nice and upon seeing our hats would say ‘congratulations’ to us. We counted how many
times people said congratulations over 7 days of the honeymoon: 5, 13, 7, 14, 11, 9, 17.
Calculate the mean, median, sum of squares, variance and standard deviation of these data. First compute the mean: