Memory Quiz- Psychology (AS)

Grace Fawcitt
Quiz by , created about 2 years ago

AQA Psychology Memory quiz for AS. Covers all topics in the AQA Psychology textbook, including researchers, evaluations and theories. Made for my own benefit, so not all questions will help you out, but feel free to use.

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Grace Fawcitt
Created by Grace Fawcitt about 2 years ago
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Question 1

Question
Which researcher investigated coding in LTM and STM and when?
Answer
  • Miller, 1956
  • Baddeley, 1966
  • Bahrick, 1975

Question 2

Question
Name one disadvantage of Baddeley's coding study.
Answer
  • Culture bias
  • Too old to generalise nowadays
  • Artificial stimuli

Question 3

Question
What is the correct capacity, coding, and duration of STM?
Answer
  • 3-6 items, semantic, 10 seconds
  • 5-9 items, acoustic, 30 seconds
  • 5-9 items, semantic, 18 seconds

Question 4

Question
What is the correct capacity, coding and duration of LTM?
Answer
  • Very small, acoustic, 45 minutes
  • Unlimited, acoustic, 7 years
  • Unlimited, semantic, permanent

Question 5

Question
Which researcher investigated capacity in STM and when?
Answer
  • Bahrick, 1975
  • Baddeley, 1966
  • Jacobs, 1887

Question 6

Question
Name one disadvantage of Jacobs' capacity study.
Answer
  • Can't be generalised.
  • Confounding variables due to era.
  • Cultural bias- he only tested the memory of women

Question 7

Question
Which researcher developed Jacobs' capacity results and when?
Answer
  • Miller, 1956
  • Baddeley, 1966
  • Bahrick, 1975

Question 8

Question
Name one disadvantage of Miller's capacity study.
Answer
  • Lacks internal validity
  • Can't be generalised
  • Contradictory evidence.

Question 9

Question
Which researcher investigated the duration of LTM and when?
Answer
  • Bahrick, 1975
  • Baddeley, 1966
  • Miller, 1956

Question 10

Question
Name one advantage of Bahrick's duration study.
Answer
  • It had a small sample, so the research was focused and detailed.
  • Lacks participant variables.
  • Has high external validity.

Question 11

Question
Which researcher investigated the duration of STM and when?
Answer
  • Bahrick, 1975
  • Miller, 1956
  • Peterson and Peterson, 1959

Question 12

Question
Name one disadvantage of Peterson and Peterson's duration study.
Answer
  • Suffered gender bias- only studied men
  • Meaningless stimuli.
  • Can't be generalised to different cultures.

Question 13

Question
Label the Multi-Store Memory Model
Answer
  • Environmental Impact
  • Sensory Register
  • Attention
  • STM
  • Recall
  • Rehearsal
  • Retrieval
  • Rehearsal loop
  • LTM

Question 14

Question
Name two sensory stores in the sensory register.
Answer
  • Iconic
  • Semantic
  • Etic
  • Echoic
  • Acoustic

Question 15

Question
Name one advantage of the multi-store model of memory.
Answer
  • Clearly shows how STM and LTM are unitary stores
  • Research used to investigate the MSM included meaningful stimuli, hence increasing the validity
  • Supporting research evidence

Question 16

Question
Name three disadvantages of the multi-store model of memory.
Answer
  • Lacks internal validity
  • Suggests STM and LTM are unitary stores
  • Doesn't account for elaborative rehearsal
  • Difficult to generalise to other cultures
  • Research used artificial materials

Question 17

Question
There are 4 types of long term memory
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 18

Question
Episodic memory refers to our ability to [blank_start]recall events[blank_end]. They are [blank_start]time stamped[blank_end] and include [blank_start]people, objects and places[blank_end]. As well as this, they require [blank_start]conscious effort[blank_end] to recall.
Answer
  • recall events
  • time stamped
  • people, objects and places
  • conscious effort

Question 19

Question
Name an example of episodic memory
Answer
  • Tom can remember last week when he played football with his dad at the park.
  • Mary can remember how to ride her bike.
  • Alex can remember the taste of an orange.

Question 20

Question
Name an example of semantic memory.
Answer
  • Mary can remember going her friends house 3 weeks ago.
  • Tom can remember how to play football.
  • Alex can remember the meaning of the word 'memory'.

Question 21

Question
Procedural memory refers to [blank_start]actions and skills[blank_end]. These memories aren't [blank_start]time stamped[blank_end], and require no [blank_start]conscious effort[blank_end].
Answer
  • actions and skills
  • time stamped
  • conscious effort to recall

Question 22

Question
Endel [blank_start]Tulving[blank_end] ([blank_start]1985[blank_end]) realised the multi-store model was too simplistic and that LTM wasn't a [blank_start]unitary store[blank_end]. He believed there were [blank_start]3[blank_end] separate LTM stores: episodic, semantic and procedural.
Answer
  • Tulving
  • 1985
  • unitary store
  • 3
  • Miller
  • Baddeley
  • Peterson and Peterson
  • 1931
  • 1966
  • 1975
  • memory store
  • visual store
  • mental store
  • 4
  • 2
  • no

Question 23

Question
Name three advantages of Tulving's three LTM stores.
Answer
  • Generalises well to other cultures.
  • Clinical evidence- Clive Wearing.
  • Neuro-imaging evidence- brain scans.
  • High internal validity to study.
  • Real life application.

Question 24

Question
Name two disadvantages of Tulving's three LTM stores.
Answer
  • Can't be easily generalised to other cultures.
  • Lack of control in case studies.
  • May be two types, not three.
  • Lacked internal validity.

Question 25

Question
[blank_start]Central executive[blank_end]- coordinates activities of subsystems and allocates resources./. [blank_start]Visual-spatial[blank_end]- memory store for visual and spatial information./. [blank_start]Phonological loop[blank_end]- memory store for auditory information./. [blank_start]Episodic buffer[blank_end]- store which integrates all information into a single memory with time sequencing.
Answer
  • Central executive
  • Visuo-spatial
  • Phonological loop
  • Episodic buffer

Question 26

Question
Define phonological store.
Answer
  • Memory store for scent information.
  • Store for the words you hear.
  • Store which allows rehearsal of words.

Question 27

Question
Define articulatory loop.
Answer
  • Store for the words you hear.
  • Store for olfactory information.
  • Store which allows 2 second maintenance rehearsal of words.

Question 28

Question
Name four advantages of the working memory model.
Answer
  • Clinical evidence
  • Dual task performance support.
  • Clarity in all aspects.
  • Word length effect evidence.
  • Research into drug users evidence
  • Brain scan evidence.

Question 29

Question
Name a disadvantage of the working memory model.
Answer
  • Lack of research for phonological loop.
  • Lacks internal validity.
  • Difficult to generalise to other cultures.
  • Lacks clarity over central executive.

Question 30

Question
Define interference
Answer
  • When two pieces of information conflict, resulting in forgetting/distorting of one or both
  • When there are insufficient cues to trigger a memory
  • When someone talks to you when you're trying to remember something

Question 31

Question
Retroactive interference: [blank_start]newer[blank_end] memory interferes with [blank_start]older[blank_end] memory e.g. teacher can't remember [blank_start]previous[blank_end] class' names Proactive interference: [blank_start]older[blank_end] memory interferes with [blank_start]newer[blank_end] memory e.g. teacher can't remember [blank_start]current[blank_end] class' names
Answer
  • newer
  • older
  • older
  • newer
  • previous
  • current
  • older
  • newer
  • newer
  • older
  • current
  • previous

Question 32

Question
Which researcher investigated how similarity affects retroactive interference and when?
Answer
  • McGeoch and McDonald, 1931
  • Baddeley, 1966
  • Peterson and Peterson, 1959

Question 33

Question
The word type which produced the worst recall in McGeoch and McDonald's retroactive study was [blank_start]synonyms[blank_end].
Answer
  • synonyms
  • antonyms
  • nonsense syllables
  • 3-digit numbers
  • no new list
  • unrelated words

Question 34

Question
Name two advantages of the interference explanation for forgetting
Answer
  • Lab studies have good validity
  • Meaningful stimuli
  • Real-life study support
  • High internal validity

Question 35

Question
Name two disadvantages of the interference explanation for forgetting
Answer
  • Researcher bias
  • Demand characteristics
  • Artificial stimuli
  • Unrealistic time between learning

Question 36

Question
Retrieval Failure: an explanation for forgetting that suggests that [blank_start]insufficient cues[blank_end] cause information to be forgotten. These cues can be [blank_start]state[blank_end] dependent (internal, e.g. drunk, tired) or [blank_start]context[blank_end] dependent (external, e.g. location)
Answer
  • insufficient cues
  • sufficient cues
  • disruptive memories
  • lack of intelligence
  • state
  • context
  • food
  • envionment
  • location
  • context
  • state
  • environment
  • drug

Question 37

Question
[blank_start]Tulving[blank_end] ([blank_start]1983[blank_end]) suggested the [blank_start]Encoding[blank_end] Specificity Principle (ESP). This indicates that cues must be [blank_start]present on encoding[blank_end] and [blank_start]retrieval[blank_end] in order for them to be sufficient. Some cues are linked to material in a [blank_start]memorable[blank_end] way e.g.' STM' helps us recall information about short term memory. Other cues are not so obvious: either context (external) or state (internal) dependent.
Answer
  • Tulving
  • Baddeley
  • Miller
  • Peterson and Peterson
  • 1983
  • 1931
  • 1966
  • 1956
  • 1985
  • Encoding
  • Coding
  • Etching
  • Easy
  • present on encoding
  • simple
  • small capacity
  • environmental
  • retrieval
  • recall
  • rehearsal
  • remembering
  • memorable
  • funny
  • unique
  • interesting

Question 38

Question
[blank_start]Baddeley[blank_end] ([blank_start]1975[blank_end]) conducted a study deep sea divers based on [blank_start]context[blank_end] dependent forgetting. They learned words either in/out of the sea and then recalled them either in/out of the sea. When the environmental contexts matched (e.g. sea - sea, land - land) the recall was [blank_start]better[blank_end].
Answer
  • Baddeley
  • Tulving
  • McGeoch
  • Peterson and Peterson
  • 1975
  • 1985
  • 1983
  • 1931
  • context
  • state
  • better
  • worse
  • the same

Question 39

Question
[blank_start]Carter and Cassaday[blank_end] ([blank_start]1998[blank_end]) conducted a study based on [blank_start]state[blank_end] dependent forgetting. They either gave the participants [blank_start]anti-histamines[blank_end] or didn't, asked them to learn and recall word lists. They recalled them either on the drug or not. They found that when there was a [blank_start]mismatch[blank_end] of internal states, recall was [blank_start]worse[blank_end].
Answer
  • Carter and Cassaday
  • McGeoch and McDonald
  • Baddeley
  • Bahrick
  • 1998
  • 1985
  • 1983
  • 1975
  • state
  • context
  • anti-histamines
  • alcohol
  • cigarettes to smoke
  • food
  • mismatch
  • match
  • similarity
  • worse
  • better

Question 40

Question
Name two advantages of the retrieval failure explanation for forgetting
Answer
  • Real life application
  • Supporting evidence
  • Takes culture differences into account
  • Meaningful stimuli

Question 41

Question
Name three disadvantages of the retrieval failure explanation for forgetting
Answer
  • Context effects not strong
  • State effects not strong
  • Lack of research evidence
  • Can't test ESP
  • Only affects certain type of memory (Recall vs. recognition)

Question 42

Question
Which researcher investigated leading questions and when?
Answer
  • Baddeley, 1966
  • Miller, 1956
  • Carter and Cassaday , 1998
  • Loftus and Palmer, 1974

Question 43

Question
Which verb in the leading question study by Loftus and Palmer, 1974, led to the highest calculated mean average?
Answer
  • Contacted
  • Smashed
  • Bumped
  • Hit

Question 44

Question
The [blank_start]response bias[blank_end] explanation suggests that the wording of a question has [blank_start]no effect[blank_end] on the participants' memories, but it changes the way they decide to answer. Words such as '[blank_start]smashed[blank_end]' encouraged them to answer a [blank_start]higher[blank_end] estimated speed.
Answer
  • response bias
  • researcher bias
  • participant bias
  • memory bias
  • no effect
  • a big effect
  • some effect
  • smashed
  • contacted
  • bumped
  • hit
  • higher
  • lower

Question 45

Question
[blank_start]Loftus and Palmer[blank_end] ([blank_start]1974[blank_end]) conducted a second experiment to prove that memory [blank_start]was[blank_end] changed by [blank_start]wording[blank_end]. They found that participants who heard '[blank_start]smashed[blank_end]' were [blank_start]more[blank_end] likely to report broken glass even though there wasn't any.
Answer
  • Loftus and Palmer
  • Miller
  • Baddeley
  • Carter and Cassaday
  • 1974
  • 1931
  • 1966
  • 1998
  • was
  • wasn't
  • wording
  • location
  • state
  • smashed
  • contacted
  • bumped
  • hit
  • more
  • less

Question 46

Question
If [blank_start]witnesses[blank_end] discuss a crime with each other, their eyewitness testimonies may become [blank_start]contaminated[blank_end]. This is because they [blank_start]combine[blank_end] information from others with their own memories.
Answer
  • witnesses
  • criminals
  • police officers
  • contaminated
  • more accurate
  • lies
  • combine
  • ignore
  • change

Question 47

Question
Which researcher investigated post-event discussion and when?
Answer
  • Carter and Cassaday, 1998
  • Loftus and Palmer, 1974
  • Tulving, 1983
  • Gabbert, 2003

Question 48

Question
[blank_start]Gabbert[blank_end] put participants in pairs, and they watched a video of [blank_start]the same[blank_end] crime from [blank_start]different[blank_end] perspectives. They had a post-event discussion, and were then asked to recall the event. Gabbert found that [blank_start]71[blank_end]% of participants recalled information that they couldn't have seen from their perspective, suggesting post-event discussion [blank_start]directly affects[blank_end] eyewitness testimony.
Answer
  • Gabbert
  • Tulving
  • Baddeley
  • Loftus and Palmer
  • the same
  • a different
  • different
  • the same
  • 71
  • 66
  • 31
  • 84
  • directly affects
  • doesn't affect
  • positively affects

Question 49

Question
Name an advantage of research into leading questions and post-event discussions.
Answer
  • Real life applications
  • Realistic tasks- better generalisability
  • High external validity

Question 50

Question
Name three disadvantages of research into leading questions and post-event discussions.
Answer
  • Artificial tasks
  • Individual differences e.g. age
  • Lab studies- demand characteristics
  • Can't generalise to collectivist cultures
  • Lack of clarity
  • No real life application

Question 51

Question
Which researcher investigated how anxiety affects recall in a negative way, and when?
Answer
  • Johnson and Scott, 1976
  • Carter and Cassaday, 1998
  • Loftus and Palmer, 1974
  • Baddeley, 1996

Question 52

Question
Which answer describes Johnson and Scott's study on anxiety?
Answer
  • Participants believed they were doing a lab study. While waiting in the waiting room, an argument was heard, and a man either came out of the room with a pen and grease on his hands, or a paper knife with blood on it.
  • A study on a real life shooting, in which they interviewed people 5 months after the incident to see if anxiety had affected their memory in any way compared to their original police interviews, as well as seeing if they suffered any emotional stress since the incident.

Question 53

Question
Which researcher investigated how anxiety affects recall in a positive way, and when?
Answer
  • Yuille and Cutshall, 1986
  • Johnson and Scott, 1976
  • Carter and Cassaday, 1998
  • Loftus and Palmer, 1974

Question 54

Question
Which answer describes Yuille and Cutshall's study on anxiety?
Answer
  • A study on a real life shooting, in which they interviewed people 5 months after the incident to see if anxiety had affected their memory in any way compared to their original police interviews, as well as seeing if they suffered any emotional stress since the incident.
  • Participants believed they were doing a lab study. While waiting in the waiting room, an argument was heard, and a man either came out of the room with a pen and grease on his hands, or a paper knife with blood on it.

Question 55

Question
Which two researchers explained the contradictory evidence provided by Johnson and Scott, and Yuille and Cutshall, and when?
Answer
  • Deffenbacher, 1983
  • Yerkes and Dodson, 1908
  • Baddeley, 1966
  • Tulving, 1983
  • Carter and Cassaday, 1998
  • Loftus and Palmer, 1974

Question 56

Question
The [blank_start]Yerkes-Dodson[blank_end] law suggested that the relationship between [blank_start]emotional arousal[blank_end] and [blank_start]performance[blank_end] looks like an inverted [blank_start]U[blank_end]. This means that too [blank_start]little[blank_end] anxiety leads to too [blank_start]little[blank_end] recall, and too [blank_start]much[blank_end] anxiety leads to too [blank_start]little[blank_end] recall. Therefore, there is an [blank_start]optimal[blank_end] level of anxiety to ensure accurate recall.
Answer
  • Yerkes-Dodson
  • Johnson-Scott
  • Deffenbacher
  • Peterson-Peterson
  • Baddeley
  • emotional arousal
  • physical arousal
  • physiological arousal
  • cognitive arousal
  • performance
  • production
  • happiness
  • terror
  • anxiety
  • U
  • M
  • N
  • V
  • little
  • much
  • little
  • much
  • much
  • little
  • little
  • much
  • optimal
  • worst
  • normal

Question 57

Question
Name five disadvantages of the anxiety-recall studies. 1. [blank_start]Weapon[blank_end] focus could be [blank_start]irrelevant[blank_end]- may be based on [blank_start]unusualness[blank_end] of object/situation, not anxiety 2. Field studies can lack [blank_start]control[blank_end]- Yuille and Cutshall's (1986) study had post-event discussions, which is an [blank_start]extraneous[blank_end] variable 3. [blank_start]Ethical[blank_end] issues- deception (thought they were doing lab study), [blank_start]psychological[blank_end] harm (inducing anxiety) 4. Inverted U too [blank_start]simplistic[blank_end]- anxiety has more elements (emotional, cognitive etc.) other than [blank_start]physical[blank_end] 5. [blank_start]Demand[blank_end] characteristics- lab studies
Answer
  • Weapon
  • irrelevant
  • unusualness
  • control
  • extraneous
  • Ethical
  • psychological
  • simplistic
  • physical
  • Demand

Question 58

Question
Which researcher investigated the cognitive interview and when?
Answer
  • Miller, 1956
  • Johnson and Scott, 1986
  • Carter and Cassaday, 1998
  • Fisher and Geiselmann, 1992

Question 59

Question
What are the 4 steps of a cognitive interview? 1. [blank_start]Report everything[blank_end]- include every detail, no matter how seemingly significant they are. They may actually be important, or trigger other memories 2. [blank_start]Reinstate the context[blank_end]- the witness should return to the scene in their mind, and remember their feelings and the environment (e.g. weather) 3. [blank_start]Reverse the order[blank_end]- change the chronology of event, preventing lying or basing answers on expectations 4. [blank_start]Change perspective[blank_end]- ask the witness to imagine themselves as a different witness/criminal, and then what they would've seen. This prevents basing answers on expectations.
Answer
  • Report everything
  • Reinstate the context
  • Reverse the order
  • Change perspective
  • Reinstate the context
  • Report everything
  • Reverse the order
  • Chnage perspective
  • Reverse the order
  • Report everything
  • Reinstate the context
  • Change perspective
  • Change perspective
  • Report everything
  • Reinstate the context
  • Reverse the order

Question 60

Question
Name five aspects to enhance the cognitive interview created by Fisher (1987)
Answer
  • Keeping eye contact when necessary
  • Asking witness to speak slowly
  • Reducing anxiety
  • Minimise distractions
  • Take place in a room without windows
  • Open-ended questions
  • Closed questions to ensure participants don't lie as much
  • Asking witness to drink coffee before to ensure high brain activity

Question 61

Question
Name three disadvantages of the cognitive interview
Answer
  • Not all information is relevant
  • Expensive and time-consuming
  • Doesn't improve accuracy of testimonies
  • Increases inaccurate information
  • Too vague, needs to be more direct

Question 62

Question
Name an advantage of the cognitive interview
Answer
  • Research support for effectiveness
  • Rigid design across police force
  • Very accurate

Question 63

Question
Semantic memory involves our [blank_start]knowledge of the world[blank_end]. Unlike episodic memory, these memories are not [blank_start]time stamped[blank_end], although they do require [blank_start]conscious effort[blank_end] to recall.
Answer
  • knowledge of the world
  • time stamped
  • conscious effort