Carbohydrates are organic molecules existing in living organisms, most typically known structures are; Sugars, Starch and Cellulose.They serve multiple functions:> Intermediates in respiration> Energy Storage> Structural> Transport> Recognition of molecules outside cell surface
Caption: : Molecular diagram of D - glucose (isomer)
Monosaccharides & Glucose Structure
Monosaccharides have the general formula: (CH20)n - Pentose sugars: used in the synthesis of nucleic acids- Hexose sugars: used as main energy source / structural support> Glucose is a form of hexose structure (C6H1206) - major energy source for most cells - high solubility; effects osmosis/osmotic pressure, can be transported through some membranes - exists in two common isomers ( different spatial arrangement): alpha / beta - glucoseClick here to watch Khan, from Khan Academy explain the simple glucose structure.
Caption: : (C) Alpha - Glucose & (D) Beta - Glucose; notice how the hydroxyl groups are switched around in both isomers. This is of later importance when looking at the structural functions of carbohydrates.