Grammar and Usage

Sin Kei Chan
Slide Set by Sin Kei Chan, updated more than 1 year ago
Sin Kei Chan
Created by Sin Kei Chan almost 5 years ago
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B1 + Secondary 1 English (F1 GE) Slide Set on Grammar and Usage, created by Sin Kei Chan on 06/09/2016.

Resource summary

Slide 1

    Grammar
    Grammar and Usage Units 4, 7-9, 11-12, 19-23

Slide 2

    4 - Talking about the future: will and be going to
    4.1 We can use will to talk about what we expect to happen in the future.The contraction of the negative will not is won't.Negative statement: don't think ... will (v) or will not (v)Question: Will (n) (v) ... or Do you think ... will (v)Use base form after will: will go, will beWe can use I'll when we offer or decide to do something at the moment of speaking.We can use will you to ask somebody to do something for us.We can use shall I/we to suggest a joint action or activity.* We can use shall with the first person and will with the second and third person, but it more common nowadays to use will in all cases. In conversation, we usually use the contractions.

Slide 3

    4 - Talking about the future: will and be going to
    4.2 When we talk about what we intend to do in the future we can also use:be + going to + (v base form)Negatives: be + not going to + (v base form) e.g. I'm not going to invite him.Questions: be + (n) + going to + (v base form) e.g. Are you going to invite Fred?* We can say: I'm going to go to Lantau Island tomorrow.However, we often drop go to after be going to.

Slide 4

    8 - The imperative
    8.1 The imperative form uses the base form of a verb.8.2 We use the imperative to: give orders give instructions give directions give warnings give suggestions/advice make offers 8.3 We use do not/don't to form the negative form of the imperative.8.4 We usually leave out the subject you in inperative statements.However, we sometimes mention the subject be their name.e.g. Take care of your belongings.Mary, take care of your belongings.

Slide 5

    8 - The imperative
    8.5 We use let's/let us to ask others to join us in an action or activitye.g. Let's go to the park8.6 We sometimes add the adverb please, always or never to an imperative staement.

Slide 6

    9 - The to-infinitive and the gerund
    9.1 The to-infinitiveSometimes, when one verb is used after another, the second verb may take the to-infinitive form, which is to + (v base form)The infinitive form does not change with person or number.We use the to-infinitive after certain verbs or phrases in English.The infinitive form of the verb am, are, is, was, were is be.To form negatives, we use not + to-infinitive

Slide 7

    9 - The to-infinitive and the gerund
    9.2 GerundWe can use the -ing form of a verb as a noun. This form is usually called a gerund.We can use it: as the subject of a sentence after certain verbs Verbs that follow most perpositions are also used in gerund form. In this situation, the gerund is the object of the preposition.The negative is formed by addomg not before the gerund.

Slide 8

Slide 9

    11 - Countable and uncountable nouns
    11.1Countable NounsCountable nouns are the names of separate objects, people, animals, etc. which we can count. They have singular and plural forms.e.g. brother, cats, eggs
    Uncountable NounsUncountable nouns are the names of things which we do not see as separate, and which we cannot count. They have only one form.e.g. milk, music, knowledge, power, tea

Slide 10

    11 - Countable and uncountable nouns
    11.2 We cannot use singular countable nouns alone without a, an, the, my, etc.But we can use plural nouns without an article or possessive.11.3 We do not normally use a/an or numbers before uncountable nouns.To quantify these nouns, we use phrases such as a piece of, a cup of, a glass of, a bottle/can of, a bowl of, a loaf of and a lump of.11.4 We cannot use many with uncountable nouns. Instead, we can use some/much/a lot of/all of/most of + uncountable noun.

Slide 11

    *We can use some, any and no with both countable and uncountable nouns.We can use some when the exact amount in unimportant, or in phrasing questions, especially for request and offers.We can use any in questions to ask if something exists, or in negative sentences when the things involved do not exist.We can use no to replace not any in a sentences.None and no have the same meaning, but none can stand on its own as a pronoun.11.5 When the subject of a sentence is an uncountable noun, the verb is always singular.11.6 Some nouns such as glass, iron, hair, coffee, tea, room and paper can be countable or uncountable with different meanings.
    11 - Countable and uncountable nouns

Slide 12

Slide 13

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