   # BASIC TERMS IN PHYSICS

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Flashcards on BASIC TERMS IN PHYSICS, created by IES EDUCATION PORTAL on 08/08/2020.
Flashcards by IES EDUCATION PORTAL, updated more than 1 year ago Created by IES EDUCATION PORTAL about 2 years ago
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 Question Answer Acceleration Change in velocity over a certain amount of time. Acceleration The rate of increase of speed or the rate of change of velocity. Ammeter A device used to measure electric current in amps. Ampere The basic SI unit of electric current; the constant current that, when maintained in two parallel conductors of infinite length and negligible cross section placed 1 metre apart in free space, produces a force of 2 × 107 newton per metre between them. 1 ampere is equivalent to 1 coulomb per second. Amplifier An electronic device used to increase the strength of the signal fed into it. Amplitude The height or depth of the wave from the middle to the crest or trough respectively. Amplitude It is height of a wave, which is measured from its center position Angle of Incidence Angle between the normal and incident ray. Angle of Reflection Angle between the normal and reflected ray. Atom This entity as a source of nuclear energy. Atomic mass unit It is one-twelfth the mass of an atom of the isotope 12?6C. Barometer A device used to measure atmospheric pressure in Pascal. Calorie A unit of heat, equal to 4.1868 joules (International Table calorie): formerly defined as the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1°C under standard conditions. It has now largely been replaced by the joule for scientific purposes. Capacitance The property of a system that enables it to store electric charge. Charge The attribute of matter by which it responds to electromagnetic forces responsible for all electrical phenomena, existing in two forms to which the signs negative and positive are arbitrarily assigned. Condensation The change of state from gas to liquid. Condensed matter physics A branch of physics that studies the physical properties of condensed phases of matter. Conductor A substance, body, or system that conducts electricity, heat, etc. Convection Transfer of energy in a liquid or gas due to different temperatures causing circulation within the fluid. Convection The process of transfer of heat by the actual transfer of matter. Convection The process by which masses of relatively warm air are raised into the atmosphere, often cooling and forming clouds, with compensatory downward movements of cooler air. Current A flow of electric charge through a conductor. Density The mass divided by the volume of an object. Density A measure of the compactness of a substance, expressed as its mass per unit volume. It is measured in kilograms per cubic metre or pounds per cubic foot Earth A connection between an electrical circuit or device and the earth, which is at zero potential. Equilibrium When two or more forces are balanced. Evaporation The change of state from liquid to gas. Field A region of space that is a vector field; a region of space under the influence of some scalar quantity, such as temperature. Frequency The number of waves passing through a point in a period of time. Frequency The number of times that a periodic function or vibration repeats itself in a specified time, often 1 second. It is usually measured in hertz. Gravity The force which pulls all objects within the earth's atmosphere towards the centre of the Earth. Gravity The force of attraction that moves or tends to move bodies towards the centre of a celestial body, such as the earth or moon. Hertz The derived SI unit of frequency; the frequency of a periodic phenomenon that has a periodic time of 1 second; 1 cycle per second. Inductance The property of an electric circuit as a result of which an electromotive force is created by a change of current in the same circuit (self-inductance) or in a neighbouring circuit (mutual inductance). It is usually measured in henries. Joule The derived SI unit of work or energy; the work done when the point of application of a force of 1 newton is displaced through a distance of 1 metre in the direction of the force. 1 joule is equivalent to 1 watt-second, 107 ergs, 0.2390 calories, or 0.738 foot-pound. Kelvin The basic SI unit of thermodynamic temperature; the fraction 1?273.16 of the thermodynamic temperature of the triple point of water Symbol: K. Kinematics Geometry of motion. Kinetic Energy Motion energy. Any object that is moving is said to have kinetic energy. Kinetic energy The energy of motion of a body, equal to the work it would do if it were brought to rest. The translational kinetic energy depends on motion through space, and for a rigid body of constant mass is equal to the product of half the mass times the square of the speed. The rotational kinetic energy depends on rotation about an axis, and for a body of constant moment of inertia is equal to the product of half the moment of inertia times the square of the angular velocity. In relativistic physics kinetic energy is equal to the product of the increase of mass caused by motion times the square of the speed of light. The SI unit is the joule but the electronvolt is often used in atomic physics. Longitudinal Waves Waves in which the direction of the vibration is parallel to the direction in which the waves are moving. Mass The amount of matter in an object. Mass A physical quantity expressing the amount of matter in a body. It is a measure of a body's resistance to changes in velocity (inertial mass) and also of the force experienced in a gravitational field (gravitational mass): according to the theory of relativity, inertial and gravitational masses are equal. Matter Substance that occupies space and has mass, as distinguished from substance that is mental, spiritual, etc. Melting The change of state from a solid to a liquid. Moment A turning force. Calculated by multiplying the force and perpendicular distance from the pivot together. Momentum The product of a body's mass and its velocity. Neutron A neutral elementary particle with a rest mass of 1.674 92716 × 1027 kilogram and spin; classified as a baryon. In the nucleus of an atom it is stable, but when free it decays. Newton The derived SI unit of force that imparts an acceleration of 1 metre per second to a mass of 1 kilogram; equivalent to 105 dynes or 7.233 pounds. Particle A body with finite mass that can be treated as having negligible size, and internal structure. Pascal The derived SI unit of pressure; the pressure exerted on an area of 1 square metre by a force of 1 newton; equivalent to 10 dynes per square centimetre or 1.45 × 104 pound per square inch. Pitch The frequency of a sound wave. The higher the frequency the higher the pitch. Planck constant or Planck's constant A fundamental constant equal to the energy of any quantum of radiation divided by its frequency. It has a value of 6.62606876 × 1034 joule seconds Potential Difference Energy transferred to a given amount of electric charge. Potential difference The difference in electric potential between two points in an electric field; the work that has to be done in transferring unit positive charge from one point to the other, measured in volts Potential energy The energy of a body or system as a result of its position in an electric, magnetic, or gravitational field. It is measured in joules (SI units), electronvolts, ergs, etc. Pressure The amount of force applied on a certain area. Proton A stable, positively charged elementary particle, found in atomic nuclei in numbers equal to the atomic number of the element. It is a baryon with a charge of 1.602176462 × 1019 coulomb, a rest mass of 1.672 62159 × 1027 kilogram, and spin. Radiation The emission or transfer of radiant energy as particles, electromagnetic waves, sound, etc. Reflection When waves bounce back once they hit smooth surfaces. Reflection The act of reflecting or the state of being reflected. Refraction The change of direction and speed of waves when they travel across a different medium. Refraction The change in direction of a propagating wave, such as light or sound, in passing from one medium to another in which it has a different velocity. Resistance Potential difference divided by current. The unit is Ohms. Resistance The opposition to a flow of electric current through a circuit component, medium, or substance. It is the magnitude of the real part of the impedance and is measured in ohms. Resultant Force A single force on an object that has the same effect as all the forces acting on it. Scalar A quantity with magnitude but not direction. Specific Heat Capacity Energy needed for one kilogram of a substance to be raised by 1 degree Celsius. Sublimation It is a process of transformation in which solid directly changed to gas without passing through an intermediate liquid phase. Superconductivity The property of certain substances that have no electrical resistance. In metals it occurs at very low temperatures, but higher temperature superconductivity occurs in some ceramic materials. Thermometer A device used to measure the temperature. Vector A physical quantity which has magnitude and direction. Vector Vector is a quantity, which has both magnitude and direction. Volt The derived SI unit of electric potential; the potential difference between two points on a conductor carrying a current of 1 ampere, when the power dissipated between these points is 1 watt. Voltmeter A device used to measure voltage or potential difference. Watt The derived SI unit of power, equal to 1 joule per second; the power dissipated by a current of 1 ampere flowing across a potential difference of 1 volt. 1 watt is equivalent to 1.341 × 103 horsepower. Wave One of a sequence of ridges or undulations that moves across the surface of a body of a liquid, esp. the sea: created by the wind or a moving object and gravity. Wavelength The distance, measured in the direction of propagation, between two points of the same phase in consecutive cycles of a wave. Waves Disturbances that transfer energy from one place to another.

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