Vocabulary chapter 6

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Flashcards on Vocabulary chapter 6, created by Natalia Lehnhoff Faillace on 07/12/2021.
Natalia Lehnhoff Faillace
Flashcards by Natalia Lehnhoff Faillace, updated more than 1 year ago
Natalia Lehnhoff Faillace
Created by Natalia Lehnhoff Faillace over 1 year ago
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Resource summary

Question Answer
energy The capacity to do work.
work The transfer of energy to an object, causing the object to move.
chemical energy Which is energy available in the bonds of molecules.
potential energy Which is stored energy, includes the chemical energy available in biological mol ecules and other molecules such as fossil fuels, elastic energy stored in a wound clock spring or a drawn bow, and gravitational energy stored in the water behind a dam or a roller-coaster car about to begin its downward plunge.
kinetic energy Is the energy of movement. It includes radiant energy, heat or thermal energy (the motion of molecules or atoms), electrical energy (also called electricity; the flow of charged particles), and any motion of larger objects.
the first law of thermodynamics States that energy can neither be created nor destroyed by ordinary processes.
closed system w Where energy can neither enter nor the leave-the total amount of energy before and after any process will be un-changed.
law of conservation of energy For this reason, the first law of thermodynamics is often called. Energy can, often, however, be converted from one form to another.
the second law of thermodynamics States that when energy is converted from one form to another, the amount of useful energy decreases.
entropy This tendency toward loss of complexity, orderliness, and useful energy-and the concurrent increase in randomness, disorder, and less useful energy.
chemical reaction A process that forms or breaks the chemical bonds that hold atoms together.
reactants Chemical reactions convert one set of chemical substances.
products Chemical reactions convert one set of chemical substances into another set.
exergonic If a chemical reaction (Greek for "energy out") releases energy, that is if the starting reactants contain more energy than the end products. All exergonic reactions release some of their energy as heat.
endergonic A reaction ("energy in") if it requires a net input of energy; that is if the products contain more energy than the reactants.
activation energy In chemical reactions, the energy "push".
Energy-carrier molecules High-energy molecules are synthesized at the site of an exergonic reaction, where they capture some of the released energy.
adenosine triphosphate (ATP) Many exergonic reactions in cells, such as breaking down sugars and fats, produce the most common energy-carrier molecule in the body ). ATP is a nucleotide composed of the nitrogen-containing base adenine, the sugar ribose, and three phosphate groups
adenosine diphosphate (ADP) It is produced when the energy released in cells during glucose break down or other exergonic reactions are used to combine the lower-energy molecules.
electron carriers These energetic electrons, along with hydrogen ions (H*; present in the cytosol of cells), are captured by molecules.
catalysts Molecules that speed up the rate of a reaction without themselves being used up or permanently altered.
enzymes Cells employ highly specific biological catalysts, nearly all of which are proteins.
active site Each enzyme has a pocket.
substrates Into which reactant molecule can enter in the enzymes pocket.
metabolism A cell is the sum of all its chemical reactions.
metabolic pathways Many of these reactions, such as those that break down glucose into carbon dioxide and water, are linked in sequences.
competitive inhibition A substance that is not the en zyme's normal substrate can also bind to the active site of the enzyme, competing with the substrate for the active site.
noncompetitive inhibition A molecule binds to a site on the enzyme that is distinct from the active site.
allosteric regulation Such enzymes are controlled which can either activate or inhibit the enzyme.
Feedback inhibition Causes a metabolic pathway to stop producing its end product when the product concentration reaches an optimal level, much as a thermostat turns off a heater when a room becomes warm enough.
denature Meaning that it loses the exact three-dimensional structure required for it to function properly.
coupled reaction An exergonic reaction provides the energy needed to drive an endergonic reaction (Fig. 6-9) using ATP or electron carriers as intermediaries.
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