Chapter 1:  Cellular Biology

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Flashcards on Chapter 1:  Cellular Biology, created by aecton1 on 05/20/2013.

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Question Answer
Q: Which is a description of the characteristics of apoptosis? A: A programmed cell death of scattered, single cells.
Q: During cell injury caused by hypoxia, why is there an increase in the osmotic pressure within the cell? A: Because sodium chloride enters the cell.
Q: During cell injury caused by hypoxia, why do sodium and water move into the cell? A: Because the pump that transports sodium out of the cell cannot function because of a decrease in ATP.
Q: When the heart's workload increases, what changes occur to the myocardial cells? A: They increase in size.
Q: What is a consequence of plasma membrane damage to the mitochondria? A: Influx of calcium ions halts ATP production.
Q: Free radicals play a major role in the initiation and progression of which diseases? A: Cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension and ischemic heart disease.
Q: How do free radicals cause cell damage? A: By giving up an electron, causing injury to the chemical bonds of the cell membrane.
Q: In hypoxic injury, why does sodium enter the cell and cause swelling? A: Because there is insufficient ATP to maintain the pump that keeps sodium out of the cell.
Q: What is the most common site of lipid accumulation? A: Liver
Q: Non-dividing cells, such as myocardial fibers, are capable of hypertrophy, but not hyperplasia. A: True
Q: Dysplasia is a common type of normal cellular adaptation. A: False
Q: Hypertrophy and hyperplasia rarely occur together. A: False
Q: A man with a history of smoking has a bronchial biopsy showing that the normal columnar ciliated epithelial cells have been replaced by stratified squamous epithelial cells. The man is correctly told that this process could be reversed if he quits smoking. A: True
Q: Dysplastic changes may be reversible, but may become malignant. A: True
Q: The most common cause of hypoxia is ischemia. A: True
Q: Irreversible damage to the myocardium can be detected by elevation in the contractile protein called troponin, which is released from the myocardial muscle. A: True
Q: Chemical injuries initiate biochemical reactions that damage cell membranes by decreasing the permeability of the plasma membrane. A: False
Q: Noise, illumination, and prolonged vibrations can cause cellular injury. A: True
Q: Melanin protects skin against long exposure to sunlight and prevents skin cancer. A: True
Q: Aging is the result of a genetically controlled development program or built-in self-destructive processes. A: True
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