Human Development

J.R. Hyatt
Flashcards by J.R. Hyatt, updated more than 1 year ago
J.R. Hyatt
Created by J.R. Hyatt almost 7 years ago


Counselor Preparation Comprehensive Examination

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Development is defined as: The systematic changes and continuities in the individual that occur between conception and death.
These systematic changes occur in three broad areas: 1. physical development 2. cognitive development 3. psychosocial development
Theories of how humans grow and develop fall into the following broad categories: a. learning: including behavioral theories, social learning theories, and information-processing theories b. cognitive theories c. psychoanalytic including neo-Freudian and ego psychology theories d. humanistic: psychology and self theories
Human growth and development changes can be viewed as: a. qualitative (change in structure-sexual development) or quantitative (change in number-intellectual) b. continuous (changers are sequential and cannot be easily separated--personality development) or discontinuous (certain changes can be separated--language development) c. mechanistic (a reduction of all behavior to common elements--instinctual behavior) or organismic (there is a change due to new stages--moral or ethical development)
Self-Concept Your perception of your qualities, attributes, and traits
Developmental Concepts a. Nature vs. Nurture b. Genotype and Phenotype c. Tabula Rasa d. Plasticity e. Resiliency
Define a. Nature vs. Nurture b. Genotype and Phenotype c. Tabula Rasa d. Plasticity e. Resiliency a. Nature includes genetic and hereditary Factors Nurture: includes learning and environmental factors b. Genotype includes the genetic (inherited) makeup of the individual Phenotype includes the way an individual's genotype is expressed through physical and behavioral characteristics C. Tabula Rasa is John Locke's view that children begin as a 'blank slate' acquiring their characteristics through experience D. Plasticity for most individuals lifespan development is plastic repressing an easy and smooth transition from one stage to the next E. Resiliency is the ability to adapt effectively despite the experience of adverse circumstances. For example, some children, despite experiencing potentially damaging conditions and circumstances, seem to suffer few consequences
Abraham Maslow A Humanistic Psychologist who developed the 'Hierarchy of Needs' People are always motivated to higher-order needs: Food/Water to Security/Safety to Belonging/ Love to Self-Esteem/ Prestige/ Status to Self-Actualization We go from filling our needs from the physiological level to the social level to the cognitive level
Arnold Gesell A Maturationist who believed in a child's growth and development was GENETICALLY PRE-ORDAINED given a normal environment. Children 'BLOOMED' in an orderly and predictable pattern with little influence from surroundings including parents
Robert Havighurst Identified stages of growth--each one requiring completion of the last one for success and happiness. Developmental Tasks: arise from physical maturation, influences from culture and society, and desires and values of the person Developmental Tasks are the skills, knowledge, behaviors, and attitudes that an individual has to acquire through physical maturation, social learning, and personal effort
John Watson and B.F. Skinner Behaviorism, a learning approach. Behaviorists believe the environmental manipulates biological and psychological drives and needs resulting in development.
Behaviorism Learning and Behavior changes are the results of rewards and punishments. A reward is a positive-reinforcing stimulus which maintains or increases a behavior. When a behavior results in the termination of a positive-reinforcing stimulus or the beginning of a negative stimulus we have punishment. Such a behavior should weaken or drop out. We grow, develop, and learn through the nature of experience--the rewards and punishments we receive
Edward Thorndike Law of Effect
Law of Effect Developed by Edward Thorndike this law, which states when a stimulus-response connection is followed by a reward (reinforcement), that connection is strengthened. In other words, a behavior's consequences determine the probability or its being repeated.
Conditioning Principles a. Classical Conditioning: food--salivation: bell--salivation b. Operant Conditioning: pick up toys--get a hug or a cookies c. Reinforcement Schedule: this schedule can be continuous or variable Behaviors established through variable or intermittent reinforcement are tougher to extinguish
Conditioning Principles CONTINUED d. fixed ratio: reinforce after a fixed number of responses e. variable ratio: reinforce, on the average, after every nth (e.g., 5th) response f. fixed interval: reinforce after a fixed period of time g. Variable Interval: reinforce, on the average, after the nth (e.g., 3rd) minute h. Spontaneous recovery: after a rest period, the conditioned response reappears when the conditioned stimulus is again presented i. Stimulus generalization: once a response has been conditioned, stimuli that are similar to the conditioned stimulus are also likely to elicit the conditioned response We can shape behavior through successive approximations
Psychoanalytic Approach and Psychosexual Development (FREUD) There is an interaction between our internal needs/ forces and the environment
Freud identified five stages of development a. oral (birth to 18 months) b. anal (2 to 3 years) c. Phallic (3 to 5 years)--has the Oedipal (son attraction to mother) and electra (daughter attraction to father) complexes d. latency (6 to 12 years) e. genital (12 to 19; others have said it never ends) * The libido is the basic energy or force of life. It consists of life and death instincts Other psychoanalytic concepts: castration anxiety, penis envy, pleasure principle, and reality principle
Erogenous Zones the areas of the bodily excitation such as the mouth, anus, and genitals
Defense Mechanisms The unconscious protective processes that help us control primitive emotions and anxiety
Define Defense Mechanisms a. Repression b. Projection c. Reaction Formation d. Rationalization e. Displacement f. Introjection g. Regression h. Denial i. Sublimation
Repression Rejecting from conscious though (denying or forgetting) the impulse or idea that provokes anxiety
Projection Avoiding the conflict within oneself by ascribing the ideas or motives to someone else
Reaction Formation Expressing a motive or impulse in a way that is directly opposite what was originally intended
Rationalization Providing a reason for a behavior and thereby concealing the true motive or reason for the behavior
Displacement Substituting a different object or goal for the impulse or motive that is being expressed
Introjection Identifying through fantasy the expression of some impulse or motive
Regression Retreating to earlier or more primitive (childlike) forms of behavior
Denial Refusing to see something that is a fact or true in reality
Sublimation May be viewed as a positive defense mechanism wherein anxiety or sexual tension or energy is channeled into socially acceptable activities such as work
Erik Erikson Identified eight stages wherein a psychosocial crisis or task is to be mastered
Erik Erikson Psychosocial Stages The stages, corresponding ages and resulting ego virtue are: 1. Trust vs. mistrust (HOPE) 2. Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt (WILL: a sense of self) 3. Initiative vs. guilt (PURPOSE: goal setting) 4. Industry vs. Inferiority (COMPETENCE) 5. Identity vs. Role Confusion (Fidelity: ability to commit) 6. Intimacy vs. Isolation (LOVE) 7. Generativity vs. Stagnation (CARE: investment in the future) 8. Integrity vs. Despair (WISDOM)
ERIK ERIKSON PSYCHOSOCIAL STAGES Psychosocial Stages The stages, corresponding ages and resulting ego virtue are: 1. Trust vs. mistrust (HOPE) birth to 18 months 2. Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt (WILL: a sense of self) 18 months to 3 years 3. Initiative vs. guilt (PURPOSE: goal setting) 3 to 6 4. Industry vs. Inferiority (COMPETENCE) 6 to 11 5. Identity vs. Role Confusion (Fidelity: ability to commit) adolescence 6. Intimacy vs. Isolation (LOVE) early adulthood 7. Generativity vs. Stagnation (CARE: investment in the future) middle adulthood 8. Integrity vs. Despair (WISDOM) later adulthood
Jean Piaget Cognitive Development (Intelligence)
According to Piaget we inherit two tendencies Organization and Adaption Organization: how we systemize and organize mental processes and knowledge Adaption: is the adjustment to the environment
Jean Piaget Adaption Adaption: Two Processes 1. Assimilation: modifying the relevant environmental events so they can be incorporated into the individual's existing structure. 2. Accommodation: modifying the organization of the individual in response to environmental events
Jean Piaget's Schema Another word for a mental structure that processes information, perceptions, and experiences
Piaget Four Stages of Cognitive Development 1. Sensorimotor (birth to 2): child differentiates self from objects; can think of an object not actually present; seeks stimulation 2. Preoperational (2 to 7): language development is occurring; child is egocentric; has difficulty taking another's point of view; classifies objects by one feature 3. Concrete Operational (7 to 11); begins logical operations; can order objects (small to large; first to last); understands conversation. 4. Formal Operational (11 to 15): moves toward abstract thinking; can test hypotheses; logical problem solving can occur
Lawrence Kohlberg Moral Development: thinking and reasoning are involved. He identified three levels relating to the relationship between self and society: a. Precoventional (stage 1 and 2) b. Conventional (stage 3 and 4) c. Postconventional (stage 5 and 6)
Daniel Levinson Wrote the Season's of a Man's Life He identified three major transitions/ times occurring between four major eras of life a. early adult transitions (17 to 22) b. mid-life transitions (40 to 45) c. late adult transitions (60 to 65) In adulthood: the individual copes with three sets of developmental tasks: a. build, modify, and enhance life structure b. form and modify single components of the life structure such as: life dream, occupation, love-marriage, family relationships, mentor, and forming mutual relationships c. tasks to become more individuated Levinson believed that the majority of the men he studied experienced midlife crisis, a time of questioning their life structure including their career. This occurred in the transition period of age 40 to 45.
Urie Brofenbrenner took an ecological approach to the study of human development (systems)
Social-Learning Models These models see the importance of social environment and cognitive factors. Go beyond behaviorism because we think about the connections between our behaviors and consequences
Albert Bandura Social-Learning Model
Bandura's Social Learning Model One of the central concepts of this cognitive-behavioral approach is self-efficacy, the belief that we can perform some behavior or task.
Bandura's Self-Efficacy Explains how people change. One's self-efficacy is facilitated through four mechanisms which are: 1. modeling after others' behavior 2. vicarious experience, i.e., watching? others perform the behavior receiving 3. verbal persuasion from others that one can do a task, and lastly, paying attention to one own 4. physiological states such as emotional arousal or anxiety involved in doing the behavior
William Perry Developed a scheme for intellectual development and ethical development
William Perry Intellectual and Ethical Development Three General Categories and Nine Positions a. Dualism i. authorities know ii. there are true authorities and wrong authorities iii. good authorities may know but may not know everything yet b. Relativism is Discovered i. there may not be right or wrong answers; uncertainty may be OK ii. all knowledge may be relative iii. in an uncertain world, I will have to make decisions C. Commitment in Relativism i. initial commitment ii. several commitments--and balancing them iii. commitments evolve, and they may be contradictory
Theories of how women develop Evolving. Many arguing that gender stereotyping, male-imposed standards, and the devaluation of feminine qualities have made women second-class citizens.
Nancy Chodorow In the mid-70's one of the first to speak out against the masculine boas found in psychoanalytic theory
Jean Baker Miller Wrote Toward a New Psychology of Women, indicated that a large part of women's lives has been spent helping others develop emotionally, intellectually, and socially. This 'care taking' is a central concept differentiating the development of women from men
Judith Jordan With others affiliated with the Stone Center, Wellesley College, presented a developmental theory of women in 1991 which was referred to as self-in-relation theory.
Judith Jordan's Self-in-Relation Theory Relational-Cultural Theory Includes: a. People grow toward relationships throughout life b. mature functioning: characterized by mutuality and deepening connections c. psychological growth is characterized by involvement in complex and diversified relational networks d. mutual empathy and empowerment are at the core of positive relationships e. growth-fostering relationships require engagements to be authentic f. growth-fostering relationships stimulate growth and change in all people g. goals of development are characterized by an increasing ability to name and resist disconnections, sources of oppression, and obstacles to mutual relationships This theory of development is now known as RELATIONAL-CULTURAL THEORY
Other Writer's who have addressed women's issues: Harriet Lerner (The Dance of Intimacy) Carol Tavris (In the Mismeasure of Woman) Carol Gilligan (In a Different Voice)
Gail Sheehy She wrote Passages: Predictable Crises of Adult Life Passages are transitional periods between life stages and are different for most individuals
Spiritual Development Some research indicates that over 90 percent of U.S. population has a belief in a divine power or force greater than oneself. Spirituality is viewed more broadly than belief in a religion. In any case, spirituality may directly influence clients in their view of self, relationships, worldview, as well as nature and cause of perceived problems. For many individuals, their spirituality is a key component in their definition of being whole and of wellness.
Spiritual Development Continued... Counselors must be willing and able to address and identify issues of spirituality important to the client's situation. They may have to acquire knowledge and the language to communicate effectively with clients who have a wide variety of spirituality issues and beliefs. Essentially, this process may reacquire counselors to examine their own spirituality.
Intelligence Defined as 'adaptive thinking or action' (PIAGET) or ability to think abstractly.
Charles Spearman Believed there was a general intelligence and special abilities
Louis Thurstone Identified several primary mental abilities: Intelligence is not fixed or determined solely by genetics. One's environment, experiences, and cultural factors influence intelligence Intelligence testing may be biased against those who have not had the opportunities to learn or experience those things the test measures
Emotional Intelligence Daniel Goleman: Proposed that one component of intelligence can operate out of human emotions, that is, independently of the person's reasoning and thinking processes. This emotional intelligence is a learned developmental process beginning in infancy and proceeding to adulthood through varying levels of development. As emotionally intelligent person is self-motivated, empathic, grapes social signals and nonverbal messages, and develops strong interpersonal abilities
Propinquity A concept that implies nearness or proximity. For example, a partner, one is most likely to become involved with someone who lives nearby
Midlife Crisis Stress may occur as an individual encounters various transitional periods/ stages. Although Levinson believes that most men experience midlife crisis, many writers do not. Both men and women may experience a painful self-evaluation process but not a crisis level
List the theory associated with Glasser Reality Therapy: People have physical needs such as food and shelter plus the need to feel worthwhile and be successful
List the theory associated with Adler Individual psychology: people are essential good. Birth order determines much of a person's behavior
List the theory associated with Jung Analytic psychology: people strive for self-fulfillment
List the theory associated with Skinner Behavioral/ cognitive behavioral modification: Humans are machines that cannot make freewill decisions. Behavior is learned from a person's environment and the reinforcement he receives from others
List the theory associated with Frankl Existential: people are good and rational, and have the freedom to choose their behavior
List the theory associated with Williamson Trait- Factor: The potential for both good and bad is innate
Describe Imprinting in terms of the work of Konrad Lorenz Imprinting refers to the way newly hatched ducks and geese instinctively follow the first moving object they see. This is usually the mother but may be any living or non-living thing.
Konrad Lorenz worked with goslings and applied his results to the principle of "critical periods." "Critical Periods" is the concept that certain behaviors must be learned at specific stages of development or they may not be learned at all. Heredity and environment are both important in critical periods of development
Describe the concept of Centration in Piaget's pre operational stage is the focusing on one feature of an object while ignoring the rest of the object. An example would be seeing an alligator's teeth but not its eyes or nostrils
Describe the concept of Egocentrism in Piaget's pre operational stage is a child's ability to see the world from only his own viewpoint. The child's viewpoint is current and not influenced by remembering features or details seen at an earlier time.
Describe the concept of Epistemology is the theory of knowledge. Piaget was a genetic epistemologist. His theory was that children learn from their own actions and experiences with their peers rather from adults.
Describe the concept of Symbolic Schema in Piaget's term for language and symbolism becoming a part of play ruing pre operational stage when the child is two to seven years of age. This process allows a child to substitute one object for another, such as when a box becomes a car with a paper plate for the wheel.
Define the term empiricists subscribe to the doctrine of empiricism, which maintains that experience is the only source of knowledge. This doctrine was formulated by John Locke and is the forerunner of behaviorism.
Define the term organicism is the theory that the total organization of an organism is determinant of life processes. The Gestalt psychologists, such as Kurt Goldstein subscribe to the theory. Psychodiagnostic is a type of testing that assesses how a patient's thinking and emotions may affect his or her behavior
Explain epigenetic theory states an individual is formed by successive development of an unstructured eft rather than by the growth of a preformed entity. Kohlberg, Erikson, and Aslow used epigenetic principles in developing their theories of human development
Explain Cephalocaudal means from head to tail and can be used to refer to the head of a fetus developing before the legs
Explain In vivo desensitization is the behavior therapy technique in which a person is gradually exposed to something he fears
Explain Instinctual an adjective derived from instinct and refers to the behavior that is innate rather than learned
Explain ethology the study of animals in their natural environment and makes use of Darwinian theory. Ethology research findings can be applied to humans as "comparative psychology."
Explain psychometrics is the design, administration and interpretation of tests that measure intelligence, aptitude and personality characteristics
Explain psychopharmacology the study of the effects of drugs on psychological functions
John Bowlby believes in bonding with an adult before the age of three is vital if a person is to lead a normal social life. According to him, the lack of bonding, or a bond that is severed during infancy, can cause abnormal behavior or psychopathology. His opinion is that the mother should be the primary caregiver for the child with the father in the role of emotional supported for the mother
Harry Harlow his work with monkeys led him to believe attachment to be an innate tendency. He saw monkeys raised in isolation develop autistic and abnormal behavior. Placing those monkeys with normally reared ones could somewhat reverse those behaviors
Discuss the difference between intelligence and emotional intelligence CARD 1 A dictionary definition of intelligence is "the capacity to acquire and apply knowledge." It can also be though of as the ability to reason, think in abstract terms and understand abstract ideas, plan, and acquire language and knowledge.
Discuss the difference between intelligence and emotional intelligence CARD 2 Piaget's definition specified adaptive thinking or action. Intelligence is not determined solely by genetics; it also involves a person's environment, experiences, and culture. A major criticism of intelligence testing is that it is often culturally biased and measures things some people have not had the opportunity to learn.
Discuss the difference between intelligence and emotional intelligence CARD 3 Emotional intelligence according to Daniel Goleman is self-motivation and self- awareness, empathy, social awareness, and persistence. The emotionally intelligent person also has strong interpersonal skills
List the theory associated with the theorist and their view of human nature: Rogers Person-Centered: people are essentially good and under the right conditions will move themselves toward self-actualization
List the theory associated with the theorist and their view of human nature: Berne Transactional Analysis: Each person has the 3 ego states of parent, adult, and child
List the theory associated with the theorist and their view of human nature: Freud Psychoanalysis: biological instincts and development through psychosexual stages control people
List the theory associated with the theorist and their view of human nature: Ellis Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy: A person's instincts are both rational and irrational, but different reactions can be taught.
List the theory associated with the theorist and their view of human nature: Perls Gestalt: people are whole and complete but are affected by their environment. Learning and change result from how a person organizes experience
Define EMDR Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing- an information processing therapy that uses an eight phase approach to reduce the emotional stress of a distressing event or memory
Define Unwelt, Mitwelt & Eigenwelt in Existential philosophy the three components of the conscious experience of being alive- Unwelt is biological, Mitwelt is social, and Eigenwelt is psychological
Define Parroting the counselor repeats what the client has said
Define paraphrasing the counselor rephrases what the client has said
Define summarizing the counselor sums up or review s what has happened in a session or in the course of the therapy
Define Bibliotherapy the use of books or other written material as part of therapy
Define Musterbations absolutist thinking by the client--the use of "musts, shoulds, and oughts"
Define Awfulizations looking at a situation or anticipating an event with irrational beliefs about how awful or difficult it is
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