Taste and Smell

tanitia.dooley
Flashcards by tanitia.dooley, updated more than 1 year ago
tanitia.dooley
Created by tanitia.dooley about 8 years ago
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undergrad neuroscience Flashcards on Taste and Smell, created by tanitia.dooley on 05/25/2013.

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Question Answer
Which sense does not go through the thalamus and instead goes straight to the sensory cortex smell
What happens once compounds are dissolved in the mucous in smell? they interact with odorant binding proteins which activates conversion of ATP into cAMP by adenylate cyclase-cAMP opens Na channels=depolarisation=AP to olfactory cortex
Is the smell pathway divergent or convergent? convergent- nerve fibres come together which ampified the signal
How do we become adapted to a persistant smell? central inhibition
Describe the smell pathway olfactory bulb>olfactory tract > olfactory cortex> hypothalamus, limbic system
Describe discrimination in smell receptor popns have distinct sensitivities- CNS translates each smell in accordance with the pattern of activity
How does ageing affect smell? no. of receptors decline with age, cilia become damaged and dont get replaced, receptors become insensitive
How are olfactory receptors replaced? basal cells proliferate and differentiate into new receptors
Describe the taste pathway taste buds are montiored by the facial cranial nerve, glossopharabgyeal nerve (circumvillate) and vagus nerve (epiglottis) then goes to solitary nucleus then to thalamus and then to the sensory cortex
What are gustatory cells? present on taste buds- each has ~40- found recessed into epithelium and have mirovilli hair qhich project through taste pore
How long do gustatory cells last? ~10 days and then they are replaced
Where are taste buds found in adults and children? superficial surface of tongue but also in pharynx and larynx in children
How many taste buds do we have? 3000
What is the circumvillate? has ~100 taste buds each. V formation at the back of the tongue- most conc'd region of taste buds
What is the filiform? friction, no taste buds
What is fungiform? shaped like a mushroom, ~5 taste buds each-limited
We have quicker responses to what tastes? Why? unpleasant ones: ~1000 times more sensitive to acids than sweet or salty and ~100 times more sensitive to bitter than acids- protective mech
How do we descriminate between different tastes? chemicals contact the taste hair cell and bind to receptors- different tastes have different mechs e.g. salt receptors open Na channels, sweet close K+ channels
Which normal inhalations, how much inhaled air gets to olfactory organs? ~2%
What is the mechanism from breathing in? air swirls around in nasal cavities- turbulence delivers airborne particles to hair cells
Describe olfactory receptors and the cilia and explain why it is like that multiple cilia to increase SA, exposed tip of each receptor cell called a nob- base for ~20 cells to icrease SA more. Cillia are within the mucous=increaaed SA and protection
What is mucous secreted by in smell? bowmans gland
What must compounds be to diffuse into the mucous for smell? Why? lipid and water soluble detected quicker and at lower conchs
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