Geography Definitions

Flashcards by , created about 6 years ago

GCSE Geography Flashcards on Geography Definitions, created by janef1 on 05/27/2013.

Created by janef1 about 6 years ago
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Question Answer
LANDFILL SITE hole in the ground where rubbish is dumped and buried URBAN SPRAWL the unplanned growth and spread of urban areas out into the countryside.
RESOURCE something we use and rely on CARBON FOOTPRINT a measurement of all the greenhouse gases that we produce. These are converted into equivalent CO2
APPROPIATE TECHNOLOGY technology that is appropriate to the situation, that will use the skills and suit the needs of local people FAIR TRADE a type of trade where producers in poor countries get a fair living wage product, and which promotes environmental protection
AID the giving of resources from 1 country or organisation to another country eg. money, expertise, goods Short Term AID emergency aid- given as a response to a particular immediate need
Long Term AID usually takes years before it is of full benefit to a country WHY IS AID REQUIRED to help LEDC's cope with; Global inequalities(diff. in dev. levels) introduce sustainable methods of dev the imbalance of trade that causes deficit dealing with environmental disasters recovering from man made
BILATERAL AID directly from 1 country to another. Sometimes strings attached TIED AID what money is to be spent on is specified. eg. Building roads with UK companies
MULTILATERAL AID government donate to world organisations (UN) who distribute it VOLUNTARY AID Funded by the public to organise aid programs
TRADE DEFICIT (LEDC) country earns less from exports than it spends on imports MEDC TRADE PATTERNS Import- raw materials, foodstuffs Export- manufactured goods and services
LEDC TRADE PATTERNS import-high value manufactured goods export- foodstuffs/raw materials ..
GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SYSTEMS technology available that will help you gain access to info. present data, explore patterns + predict future events INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION when people move from 1 country to another on a permanent basis
MIGRATION the movement of people from one place to another POPULATION STRUCTURE no. of males and females within different age groups in the population
ECONOMICALLY ACTIVE people in a population who are of working age 15-64 YOUNG DEPENDANTS people that are too young to work- dependant on the economically active 0-14
ELDERLY DEPENDANTS to old to work, dependant on the economically active 65+ POP. PYRAMIDS SHOW total each 5 year group % of people in each %of males and females in each trends in BR, DR, IM and LE prop. of pop. dependant on ec. active
DEPENDANCY RATIO not economically active __________________ X100 economically active DEVELOPMENT improvements in a countries ec. and social conditions. Refers to improvments in ways of managing a countries natural + human resources in order to create wealth and improve peoples lives
INFANT MORTALITY no. of children who die before age of 1 per 1000 of population LIFE EXPECTANCY av. no of years a person born in a country can expect to live
ADULT LITERCY % of adult population that can read and write HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX uses indicators other than wealth ranks countries acc. to their HDI score closer to 1=more developed Combines health, wealth and ed. Social- L.E, lit rate, ed. enrolment Economic- GNP, exports, GDP
HUMAN POVERTY INDEX poverty is not just about income-uses nonfinancial aspects also deprivation made up of early DR, adult lit, living stand. water, obesity HIGHER SCORE=MORE DEPRIVED GLOBALISAION the way in which countries from all over the world are becoming linked by trade, ideas and technology
TRADE the movement and sale of goods or services from 1 country to another TRADE SURPLUS country earns more on exports than it spends on imports
DEFENSIVE SITE Meander, Hill Eg. Belfast-Divis Mt, Lough Foyle BURGESS CONCENTRIC RING MODEL CBD Zone of transition low med. high cost housing
CBD main shops and offices centre for commerce and entertainment most accessible part of city Sml area,demand high, so UP! TRANSITION most recent immigrants gentrification degraded housing, light industry
L.C.H peeps slightly better off 2nd gen. immigrants walk/public transport- cost reduced M.C.H Higher quality in UK- inter war semi-detached and council estate
COUNTER URBANISATION people moving out of towns/cities BIRTH RATE no. of live births/1000 of population/year
H.C.H money req. to -afford houses here -commute to CBD daily SUBURBS Res. areas at the edge of the settlement
RURAL URBAN FRINGE- blurry line! area just beyond suburbs building not as strictly controlled as green belts INDUSTRIAL ZONE Old-beyond i.cities with worker housing NEW-outskirts, rely on motorway to bring raw material and to distribute finished product
DEATH RATE no. of deaths/year/1000 of the population in an area NATURAL INCREASE birth-death
THRESHOLD no. of customers needed to make profitable eg. cinema-15000 people GREEN BELTS areas of the countryside that have strict regulations against building
SETTLEMENT a place where people live SITE actual place where people locate their settlement
URBAN SPRAWL when a city spreads out into surrounding countryside covering farm and woodland with roads and buildings. WET POINT SITE river provides fresh water for washing, cooking or cleaning. Londonderry/Belfast
POPULATION GROWTH-MEDC's 1650-Black Death 1800-Agriculture/Industrial Revolution POPULATION GROWTH-LEDC's 1900rev in hc, vaccination+sanitation 1950-green revolution, high yield var.
SITUATION where settlement is in relation to natural resources and other settlements FUNCTION what a settlement did, or still does
DRY POINT SITE above marshy land/land liable to flood Belfast BRIDGING POINT river is narrower, firm banks Banbridge
SETTLEMENT HIERARCHY when settlements are put in order based on size, services or distance apart HIGH ORDER Rarely flights, sofa, university
MIDDLE ORDER monthly/fortnightly cinema, cloths LOW ORDER every/every other day milk
S.O.I area served by a settlement RANGE max. distance people will travel to buy/use goods or services
GREENBELT PURPOSE to -control spread of suburbs -protect against merge of settlements -protect cc from urban sprawl -encourage urban renewal in inner city URBANISATION process by which an increasing percentage of people are living in towns and cities