Chapter 8 - The Respiratory System

Zita Wormuth
Flashcards by Zita Wormuth, updated more than 1 year ago
Zita Wormuth
Created by Zita Wormuth almost 3 years ago
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Year 11 Human Biology ATAR 2017 Chapter 8 - The Respiratory System
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List the order in which air travels to the alveoli (organs) Nasal Cavity ➡ Pharynx ➡ Epiglottis closes ➡ Larynx ➡ Trachea ➡ Bronchi ➡ Bronchioles ➡ Alveoli
List 5 reasons why lungs are so well suited for gas exchange 1. Alveoli give lungs huge surface area 2. Alveoli have many blood vessels 3. Membrane of alveolus is thin 4. Lungs positioned deep in the body - no evaporation 5.Lung volume can be changed by movements of muscles
What is inspiration? The process of taking air into the lungs. Pressure of air in lungs must be lower than outside the body
Describe the sequence of events that occur during inspiration - Diaphragm contracts and chest cavity moves down - Intercostal muscles contract ribs move up and out - Lung volume increases
What is expiration? Breathing out Air pressure in lungs is greater than outside the body
Describe the events that occur during expiration - Diaphragm relaxes, chest cavity moves up - Rib cage moves down and in - Lung volume decreases - Air flows from high pressure in lungs to low pressure outside
Where does carbon dioxide diffuse into during gas exchange? CO2 diffuses from the higher concentration in the blood to the lower concentration in the alveolus
Where does oxygen diffuse into during gas exchange? Oxygen diffuses from the high concentration of the alveolus to the low concentration of the blood
Why is gas exchange into the alveolus so easy? The alveolus is only one cell thick and inside the alveolus is a film of moisture
What kind of blood does the artery bring to the alveolus? Oxygenated or deoxygenated? Deoxygenated
What kind of blood do the capilleries bring away from the alveolus? Oxygenated or deoxygenated? Oxygenated
What is Emphysema? A diseased caused by long term exposure to irritating particles taken into the lungs. It cannot be cured and the progression of the disease can't be stopped.
What is lung cancer? Development of a tumour in the lungs often caused by tobacco smoking, exposure to asbestos fibres and other pollutants
What is pneumonia? Infection of the lungs caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi or other organisms. Inflammation causes secretion of fluid and mucus into alveoli making breathing difficult
What is tuberculosis? An infection of the lung caused by Mycobacterium Tuberculosis causes high number of deaths
What is asthma? An allergic response to foreign substances that enter the body. May trigger an asthma attack.
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