breathing and gas exchange

Flashcards by , created about 6 years ago

Flashcards on breathing and gas exchange, created by ashley.amber on 05/29/2013.

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Created by ashley.amber about 6 years ago
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Question Answer
define 'ventilation' the mechanism that moves air into/out of lungs which allows gas exchange to take place
what is needed for cells to respire aerobically? continuous supply of oxygen from blood CO2 must be removed gasses must be exchanged between blood and air in lungs
what is the muscular sheet of tissue which (together with the thorax) encloses the lungs in the ribs? the diaphragm
what joins each rib to the next? external and internal intercostal muscles
what is a bronchial tree? air passages of the lungs form a branching network
what is the function of the rings of cartilage in the trachea? to support airways and keep them open
where does gas exchange with the blood take place? in the alveoli (microscopic air sacs found at the end of the bronchioles)
how is the trachea kept clean? it is lined with a layer of cells which secrete mucus which traps the dirt.cilia beat the mucus up towards the mouth
what happens to our diaphragm when we breath in? there is a higher volume inside and a lower pressure than outside the body- the diaphragm muscles contract and flatten- the external intercostal muscles contract- ribs go up and out
what happens when we breath out there is a lower volume inside and a higher pressure inside than outside the body- diaphragm muscles relax and becomes curved. internal intercostal muscles contract, pulling the ribs down and out
how are alveoli adapted for gas exchange? large surface area moist tiny cell wall for diffusion
what causes a smoker's cough? cigarette smoke kills cilia cells so there is a build up of mucus in air passages
what is the cause of emphysema? smoke damages the walls of the alveoli, causing them to fuse together and form large, irregular air spaces
what is carboxyhaemoglobin? carbon monoxide in smoke in smoke binds with haemoglobin instead of oxygen, reducing the amount of oxygen being carried in the blood