elements and atmoic structure

Flashcards by , created about 6 years ago

Flashcards on elements and atmoic structure, created by ashley.amber on 05/30/2013.

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Created by ashley.amber about 6 years ago
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Question Answer
what is an element? a substance that contains only 1 type of atom
what does the atomic mass tell us about an element? it's number of protons and neutrons
what does the atomic number tell us about an element? the number of protons in an atom
describe the composition of an atom a nucleus of protons and electrons surrounded by electrons
what is the relative charge and mass of a proton? charge- +1 mass- 1
what is the relative charge/mass of a neutron? charge- 0 mass- 1
what is the relative charge/mass of an electron? charge- -1 mass- 1/2000
why does a neutral atom have the same number of protons and electrons? because protons and electrons are the only charged particles in the atom so their numbers must be equal to balance the charge
why are electrons important in an atom? they take part in bonding
how many electrons do each shell hold? shell 1- 2 electrons max shell 2- 8 electrons max shell 3- 8 electrons max
a chlorine atom has 17 electrons. how would we right this in short hand? 2,8,7
what does the number of electrons in the outer most shell tell us? the elements group number in the periodic table (e.g all atoms in group 7 have 7 atoms in their outer most shell)
what does the number of shells filled tell us about an element? It's row in the periodic table
why are noble gasses highly unreactive? because they have a full outer most shell and are therefore very stable
what must an atom be in order to have a full outer most shell? give examples of these types of atom they must be diatomic 02, H2, Cl2, Br2
why do ions form? atoms are stable when they ahve a full outer most shell. Atoms will bond in order to lose/gain the electrons they need to become stable. Charged atoms (ions) form as a result
if a metal bonds with a non metal, what happens (in terms of electrons moving) the electrons are passed from the metal to the non metal
what is the charge of a metal ion? positive
what is the charge of a non metal ion? negative
what is the structure of an ion the same as? the nearest noble gas
sodium's atomic number is 11. now many protons does it have? why? 11 because atom's have no overall charge, therefore the electrons and protons must be equal
sulfur's atomic number is 16. a)what is it's electronic structure? b)what is the structure of the nearest noble gas? c)what is the electronic structure of the ion? d)what is the overall charge? a) 2,8,6 b)2,8,8 c)2,8,8 d)S2- because it's gaining 2 electrons to become stable (2 negatively charged particles)
how would you find the charge of a metal ion? a non metal ion? the group number= the charge of the ion the charge= the group number- 8
name 5 ions with the charge '+' lithium hydrogen sodium potassium Ammonnium (NH4+)
name 5 ions with the charge '2+' calcium magnesium copper zinc Iron (II)
name 2 ions with the charge '3+' Iron (III) Aluminium
name 5 ions with the charge '-' fluoride chloride bromide hydroxide nitrate
name 4 ions with the charge '2-' oxide sulphide sulfate carbonate