Anaesthetics - People, problems, benfits and impact

Tom Lea
Flashcards by Tom Lea, updated more than 1 year ago
Tom Lea
Created by Tom Lea about 8 years ago
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GCSE Surgery Flashcards on Anaesthetics - People, problems, benfits and impact, created by Tom Lea on 06/05/2013.

Resource summary

Question Answer
Name the first anaesthetic used in surgery. Nitrous Oxide
Key People involved in the discovery and use of Nitrous oxide were... 1799 – Humphrey Davy discovered it made you less aware of pain 1846 Horace Wells (U.S Dentist) used it when extracting teeth. Seen as a fraud after the patient in his public demonstration cried out in pain.
The benefits of Nitrous Oxide are... Patient feels less pain Safe drug – no problems with overdose.
The problems with Nitrous Oxide are... Not a strong anaesthetic – did not make the patient unconscious couldn’t be used in serious operations. Could make people giggle etc – made it harder to operate on.
What impact did Nitrous Oxide have? Only really used as a recreational drug to begin with. Stronger, more effective anaesthetics soon took its place Some thought it was a con after Wells’ first public demonstration was only partially successful. The audience shouted ‘Humbug’ (fake) at him.
Name the second anasethetic used by surgeons Ether
Key people involved in the discovery and use of Ether were... 1846 William Morton (another U.S dentist) used it when Dr.John Warren was operating to remove a growth from a patient’s neck 1846 Robert Liston used it when amputating a patient’s leg
The benefits of Ether were... Strong anaesthetic – knocks out patient completely. No pain felt even in serious operations. Patients no longer had to be held/strapped down – much easier for the surgeon to be accurate. Effects lasted for a long time.
The problems with Ether were... Dangerous chemical, could explode It was an irritant – could make patients cough, even if unconscious It sometimes made patients vomit Effects lasted for a long time – occasionally for days! It had to be carried around in large, heavy, glass bottles.
Why was there opposition to Ether? Some believed pain was sent by God. This was especially true for childbirth. Distrusted as new and effects were not understood. Some doctors liked to hear their patients’ screams - check still alive
Evidence ether was accepted by surgeons... Seen as significant breakthrough used by large number of surgeons. Morton demonstrated its use successfully.
Name the third anesthetic used by surgeons. Chloroform
The key peopple involved in the discovery and development and use of Chloroform were... 1847 James Simpson experiments - finds Chloroform 1848 Hannah Greener dies from overdose in op to remove toenail 1848 John Snow invents the chloroform inhaler -accurate dose 1853 Queen Victoria uses chloroform during childbirth
The benefits of chloroform were... Strong anaesthetic – knocks out patient completely No pain felt even in serious surgery. Patients no longer had to be held/strapped down – much easier for the surgeon to be accurate. Much safer chemical than ether Didn’t make patients vomit or cough.
The problems with Chloroform were... Giving an accurate dose impossible until John Snow invented the chloroform inhaler - meant deaths from overdose (e.g. Hannah Greener) and some people were not properly unconscious during surgery. Chloroform affected the heart – a number of seemingly fit young patients died as a result of taking it.
Evidence of the acceptance of chloroform... Chloroform significant improvement on Ether, much more widely used. Simpson was first person knighted for services to medicine. 30,000 people attended his funeral. Queen Vic’s use of Chloroform made more acceptable.
Why was there still opposition to Chloroform Some believed pain was sent by God. This was especially true for childbirth. Some just distrusted as new and effects were not yet fully understood. Some doctors liked to hear their patients’ screams as this meant they knew they were still alive – Cases such as Hannah Greener’s helped to give people the image of anaesthetics as more dangerous than the surgery.
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