Year 11 Psychology - Intro to Psychology and Research Methods

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Introduction to psychology and research methods.

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Question Answer
Why is it generally believed that contemporary psychology has its roots, or origins, in philosophy? Philosophers first discussed the issues. However, they were limited to personal observations, reflections, hunches and reasoning. They could not properly test the ideas, so scientists started making progress in answering questions about human behaviour and mental processes that philosophers could not.
Briefly describe the nature versus nurture debate. Whether we are born with our thoughts, feelings and behaviour or if they are acquired through life experiences.
Describe the mind-body problem. A debate about the relationship between the human mind and body. - Whether the mind and body are distinct, separate entities or whether they are one and the same thing.
What three key ideas proposed by Descartes changed thinking about the relationship between the mind and body? fe855f6a-af7b-412d-affb-a7a0bb2d851a.jpg (image/jpg) - The mind and body are two different things - Mind could affect the body and visa versa - Mind and body interacts through the brain
Briefly describe the mind-brain problem. The relationship between brain activity and conscious experience. * The relationship between what our brain does and our awareness of our own existence and activities, and of objects and events in the external world. *
What does the phrase 'perspective of psychology' mean? Perspective is a 'view' or 'belief' about human behaviour. So 'perspective of psychology' is the beliefs, or views of others.
- Who is the leader of Structuralism? - When did structuralism become prominent? - What was the focus of study? - What were the methods of study? - His theory? - Wilhelm Wundt - 1879 (when he established a laboratory at University of Leipzig) - Structure of consciousness - Broke down consciousness into parts: thoughts, feelings, sights, sounds, etc. Conducted experiments and introspection. - Attention, sensations, perceptions and feelings can be studied experimentally. c198a8d9-e240-4165-b2c9-d3f12beff46f.jpg (image/jpg)
- Who is the leader of Functionalism? - When did functionalism become prominent? - What was the focus of study? - What was the method of study? - What was the functionalism theory? - William James - 1890 (when he published Principles of Psychology) - How behaviour and mental processes allow organisms to adapt to their environments. (Function of consciousness / conscious experience. - Observing people and animals in their natural habitats and introspection. - People have the ability to change their behaviour when necessary to function effectively in a changing environment. aaaa24e8-2a91-4b65-a1f0-634b43aa79aa.jpg (image/jpg)
- Who is the leader of psychoanalysis? - When did it become prominent? - Focus of study? - Method of study? - Psychoanalysis theory? - Sigmund Freud - Late 19th century - The roles of unconscious conflicts and motivations in understanding and explaining behaviour and mental processes. - Developed theories from his work with patients who sought his help with mental health problems they were experiencing. He also observed his family and reflected on his own thoughts, feelings and behaviour. - Our past experiences, especially early childhood experiences, are very important in the development of our personality and behaviour. 9427c2b0-9b9c-4702-a315-0bcf4fc48728.jpg (image/jpg)
- Who is the leader of behaviorism? - When did behaviorism become prominent? - Focus of study? - Methods of study? - The theory? - John B. Watson - 1920's - The focus was behaviour and how it is learned and molded everything a person or animal does. He also studied the effects of consequences and rewards - Watson and colleagues used animals to experiment the roles of rewards and punishments. They recorded behaviour as it occurs. - If you have control over an infant's environment, you can turn them into whatever you want them to be. A doctor, a lawyer or even a criminal. f3684b27-e1b8-487e-a9a4-177dbc63f2d5.jpg (image/jpg)
- Who is the leader of humanism? - When did humanism become prominent? - Focus of study? - Methods of study? - Theory? - Carl Rogers - 1950's - Understanding and explaining behaviour and mental processes that focuses on the uniqueness of each individual person and the positive qualities and potential of all human beings in their lives. - There is little research behind the theory since Carl did not believe in using scientific study. - Our personality develops as we strive to overcome the various hurdles that we face in our attempts to reach our full potential. 474c8381-8272-4660-b7ba-4d6babbfcb17.jpg (image/jpg)
Identify the perspective and the leader associated: 'Psychology should study how behaviour and mental processes allow organisms to adapt to their environments' Perspective: Functionalism Leader: William James
Identify the perspective and the leader associated: 'Psychology should emphasize each person's uniqueness as they strive to reach their full potential as a human being' Perspective: Humanism Leader: Carl Rogers
Identify the perspective and the leader associated: 'Psychology should experimentally study the elements of consciousness, how they are organised and how they are interrelated.' Perspective: Structuralism Leader: Wilhelm Wundt
Identify the perspective and the leader associated: 'Psychology should scientifically study observable behaviour that can be objectively measured and not focus on consciousness' Perspective: Behaviorism Leader: John B. Watson
Identify the perspective and the leader associated: 'Psychology should study how unconscious conflicts influence behaviour and mental processes that occur at the conscious level' Perspective: Psychoanalysis Leader: Sigmund Freud
Biological perspective: - Focus of study? - Major assumptions? - Method of study? - Example of theories? - Focus of study? Biological influences on behaviour and mental processes. - Major assumptions? All our thoughts, feelings and behaviours involve underlying bodily activities and processes. - Method of study? By scientific experiments on the brain, cells, etc. - Example of theories? Darwin's theory of evolution
Behavioral perspective: - Focus of study? - Major assumptions? - Method of study? - Example of theories? - Focus of study? Environmental influences on observable behaviour. How behaviour is modified by environmental consequences such as rewards and punishments. - Major assumptions? All behaviour can be explained in terms of the learning process. - Method of study? Scientific experiments on rats (using the 'Skinner Box', etc.) - Example of theories? The consequence of behaviour determine whether the behaviour will be more or less likely to be repeated.
Cognitive perspective: - Focus of study? - Major assumptions? (of IPA and CA) - Method of study? - Example of theories? - Focus of study? Mental processes that take place inside our brain. How we take in information and how we treat the information in order to think, feel and behave as we do. - Major assumptions? (IPA) - The brain uses a similar process to a computer (CA) - Information is distributed throughout entire networks within the brain rather than being located in one specific area of the brain. - Method of study? Experiments (memory tests, etc) - Example of theories? (IPA) The brain stores and retrieves information like a computer. For example if you're solving a maths problem, you locate and retrieve information stored in the brain. When the information is retrieved, we then select and use the appropriate mental operations (programs) to get the required solution (output) (CA) Bits of related information are clustered togethehr and these are spread throughout an interconnected network
Socio-cultural perspective: - Focus of study? - Major assumptions? - Method of study? - Example of theories? - Focus of study? Rules of social and cultural influences on human behaviour and mental processes. - Major assumptions? Culture, age, race, sex, income level plays a great part in the way people think and behave. - Method of study? Observe different people of different races doing specific tasks (social loafing experiment) - Example of theories? Depending on culture, people do things differently. Example, social loafing.
Explain why psychology is regarded as a science. Psychologists approach the study of behaviour and mental processes in a SCIENTIFIC way. This involves the use of scientific method to study questions.
Define the term 'scientific method' A systematic approach for planning, conducting and reporting empirical evidence (data collected through experimentation).
What are the two main benefits of using scientific method? - Allows psychologists to draw accurate conclusions - Can collect data through empirically based research.
What is empirical evidence? Data (information) collected directly by observation.
Why do psychologists prefer to use descriptions of behaviour and mental processes that are based on empirical evidence rather than descriptions based on commonsense? Commonsense is not scientifically proven, which can lead to inaccurate conclusions.
Explain the importance of replication in science. Replication can reinforce the finding, or show its flaws. Using replication, the study can be refined.
How many years of study does a psychologist have? Total of 6 years. - Bachelor's Degree (4 - 5 years) - Master's Degree or full time training (2 - 3 years)
What do psychologists deal with? They have specific training in counselling, such as helping clients with depression, grief and relationship breakdowns.
Do you need a referral to see a psychologist? Only under certain circumstances.
Can psychologists hospitalize people? No
How is a psychiatrist's study different to a psychologist? Psychiatrists are medical doctors. They study medicine first, then the mind for five years. - 6 year medical degree in university - 1 year internship in hospital to qualify as a doctor. - 1 year as a Resident Medical officer to gain psychiatric experience. - 5 year (minimum) post graduate training in psychiatry - Registration to practise as a psychiatrist
Do you need a referral to see a psychiatrist? Yes
What can psychiatrists do that psychologists can't? - Prescribe medication - Procedures (such as ECT) - Hospitalize people against their will
What is 'basic psych'? Psychology for its own sake, to further understand behaviour and mental processes through (pure) research.
What is 'applied psych'? How knowledge of psychological principals can be applied in a proactive and relevant manner (e.g. rehab, clinical and counselling settings)
What are the areas of specialization? (Types of psychology) - Clinical psychology - Clinical neuro psychology - Community psychology - Counselling psychology - Forensic psychology - Educational and development psychology - Health psychology - Organisational psychology - Sport psychology - Biological psychology - Cognitive psychology - Personality psychology - Social psychology
Why is pseudoscience unreliable? - Lack of empirical evidence - Not willing to change with new evidence - No peer review - Selects only favourable discoveries - Sees criticism as conspiracy - Non-repeatable results - Claims of widespread usefulness - "ballpark" measurment 7e883e35-9a9d-4b2b-a1a3-f4088cb90cde.jpg (image/jpg)
Why is science reliable? - Willingness to change with new evidence - Ruthless peer review - Takes account of all new discoveries - Invites criticism - Verifiable results - Limits claims of usefulness - Accurate measurment
What are the steps in psychological research? - Identify the research / problem / question - Construct a hypothesis - Design the method - Collect the data - Analyse the data (break it down, make it simpler) - Interpret the data (draw the conclusion) - Report the findings
What are the key characteristics of a hypothesis? A hypothesis is an educated guess. - It's a statement, NOT a question - Written as a single sentence - Stated in a way that can be tested
What are some methods of data collection? - Experiments - Observational studies - Rating scales - Cross sectional studies - Case studies - Interviews - Longitudinal studies - Correlational studies
What does 'analyzing data' mean? To summarize, organize and represent the raw data in a logical way
What does 'interpreting data' mean? To explain the data analyzed and draw a conclusion.
What is a dependent (DV) and independent (IV) variable? Independent variable (IV) is the cause. It is the 'thing' you are researching the effect of. For example, a drug. It can be manipulated by the researcher and on a graph is shown on the x axis. Dependent variable (DV) is the effect of the IV. It is measured by the researcher and is shown on the y axis.
What's an extraneous variable? A variable other than the Independent Variable that can cause a change in the Dependent Variable and therefore can change the result of the experiment.
What's the 'Barnum Effect' (or Forer effect)? Individuals will give high accuracy ratings to descriptions of their personality that supposedly are tailored specifically for them but are really vague enough and general enough for many people.
What's a 'participant variable'? The individual characteristics of each participant that may impact how they respond. Can include background differences, mood, anxiety, intelligence, awareness and other characteristics unique to each person.
Define 'population' and 'sample' in psychology. Population is the group of people you choose from. E.g. school, state, suburb etc. Sample refers to the people who are chosen to do the test.
What are some advantages of experimenting? - IV can be manipulated to observe DV - Because of controlled conditions, the tests can be redone - Can be explained so precisely that others can replicate
What are some limitations of experimenting? - Elimination of all extra variables is not always possible - Some things cannot be measured in a laboratory - Time consuming - Can't create harm (or risk) through tests
What is 'random sampling'? Ensures every member of the population has an equal chance of being selected as a participant for the study.
What is 'stratified sampling'? Divides the population to be sampled into different subgroups, then selecting a separate sample from each subgroup.
What is it meant by 'sampling'? Selecting participants so that the result can be applied to the general population in which it was selected.
What is random allocation and what is the difference between random sampling and random allocation? Random allocation is when the participants are randomly allocated into the controlled or experimental group. Random sampling is picking the participants. 'Allocation' is putting them into groups.
What are some examples of 'qualitative' and 'quantitative' data? Qualitative: Words, emotion, opinions etc. Qualitative: Numbers, statistics, etc.
What are 'morals' and 'ethics'? Morals: Personal beliefs Ethics: Professional standards of peers
What are the roles and responsibilities of the experimenter? - Take into consideration of ethical issues involved - Wellbeing of participants - Need to balance benefits to society from the findings of the investigation against any discomfort or risk to participants
What are the 6 participant rights? - Confidentiality - Voluntary participation - Withdrawal rights - Informed consent procedures - Deception -Debriefing
What is professional conduct? Throughout research, researchers are expected to conduct themselves in a professional manner. They must not use a position of authority to pressure people to participate in research. They must ensure their colleagues follow the ethical code of conduct and guidelines prior to research.
What are the guidelines to using animals in research? - Must be supervised by a person to ensure comfort, health and humane treatment - Research can only be performed if the research can be justified - If an animal is subject to pain, stress or deprivation, research may only occur if there is no other option - If surgery is to be done on an animal, they must be given proper anashesia - If an animal's life is to be terminated, it must be done quickly and painlessly.
What are the pros of using animals in psychological research? - Some studies cannot be done on humans due to risks or not enough participants - Similar behaviours and bodily systems - Practical advantages: short life expectancy, quicker breeding, can be kept in captivity in laboratories - Behaviour can be controlled to an extent not possible with humans - Animals are easier to obtain - 'Participant expectations' non existent in animals
What are some cons to animals in psychological research? - Cannot generalise results of animal studies because the species isn't the same - Humans should respect animals and protect them - Humans should not dominate other species
What is observation? When an observable event is studied, including the data that represent a phenomenon, such as scores or written reports.
What's an observational study? Observing the behaviour of other people and draw conclusions about them from their actions.
What is participant and non-participant observation? Participant: when the researcher actually participates in the activity being observed. For example, acting like the animal they're observing, being admitted to a mental institute pretending they have a mental illness etc. Non-participant: Observing from a distance or just not getting involved with what you're observing
What is observer bias? Distorting what you see, so it resembles what you hoped to see.