The Penicillins

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Flashcards on The Penicillins, created by aaudreylynnn on 09/10/2014.

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Question Answer
which microorganisms that the commercial production of biosynthetic penicillins today depend on various strains Penicillium notatum and Penicillium chrysogenum
structure of penicillin Beta-lactam ring and thiazolidine ring (beta-lactam thiazolidine structure)
gram-negative bacilli is resistant to ____? penicillins
enzyme that inactivates penicillins penicillinase
two general types of the enzyme that inactivates penicillins beta-lactamases and acylases
another name of Pen G benzylpenicillin
it is an agent of choice for the tx of more different kinds of bacterial infection than any other antibiotic Pen G
K, Ca and Na salts are inactivated by _______ gastric juice unless antacid/strong buffer (absorbed poorly from the intestinal tract) large oral doses
amine sale of penicillin G was made with _______ procaine
preparation of Pen G Procaine from Pen G Na by treatment with Procaine HCl
it is a salt of diamine composition of the diamine Penicillin G Benzathine 2 moles of penicilline are available from each molecule (very insoluble in water = great stability and prolonged effect)
another name of Pen V phenoxymethylpenicillin
Pen V is resistant to hydrolysis by ________________ and its ability to produce uniform concentration in ____________ gastric juice; blood (when administered orally)
Methicillin sodium is particularly resistant to inactivation by the ___________ found in _________ and somewhat more resistant than __________ to penicillinase from ________________. penicillinase; staphylococci; Pen G; Bacillus cereus
it is used in the treatment of staphylococcal infections caused by strains resistant to other penicillins methicillin sodium
Explain: resistant to inactivation by the penicillinase since penicillinase inactivates the penicillin, this now means that the bacteria is susceptible to the drug because it resists the inactivation by the penicillinase
it is highly resistant to inactivation by penicillinase oxacillin sodium
chlorine atom ortho to the position of attachment of the phenyl ring to the isozaxole ring enhances the activity of __________________ ____________ cloxacillin sodium enhances its oral absorption
dicloxacin sodium its medicinal properties and use are similar to those of cloxacillin sodium
nafcillin is stable enough in _______ to perming its use by _______ administration acid; oral
another semisynthetic penicillin that resulted from the search for penicillinase-resistant compounds nafcillin soidum
Nafcillin sodium may be used in infections caused solely by ___________ __________ ______________ or when _______________ are present also. penicillin G-resistant staphylococci; streptococci
its antibacterial spectrum is broader than that of penicillin G Ampicillin
It is particularly useful for the treat- ment of acute urinary tract infections caused by _____ or ___________ and is the agent of choice against _________ infections. E. coli; Proteus mirabilis; Haemophilus influenzae
ampicillin + ________ = tx for gonorrhea probenecid
It is a prodrug of ampicillin with no antibacterial activity hydrolyzed rapidly by _____ Bacampicillin HCl esterases
it has largely replaced ampicillin for the treatment of certain _____ and__________ for which oral administration is desirable Amoxicillin systemic; UTI
it has a broad range of antimicrobial activity, broader than any other known penicillin Carbencillin Disodium, Sterile
provides an orally active alternative for the treatment of _________ and _______ caused by Pseudomonas spp., indole-positive Proteus spp., and se- lected species of Gram-negative bacilli. Indanyl carbenicillin; carbenicillin- sensitive systemic ; UTI
advantages of ticarcillin (a) slightly better pharmacokinetic properties, including higher serum levels and a longer duration of action; and (b) greater in vitro potency against several species of Gram- negative bacilli, most notably P. aeruginosa and Bacteroides fragilis.
an acylureidopenicillin Mezlocillin Sodium, Sterile (See p 273)
It is more active than mezlocillin against susceptible strains of Gram-negative aerobic bacilli, such as Serratia marcescens, Proteus, Enterobacter, Citrobacter spp., and P . aeruginosa ex- tended-spectrum acylureidopenicillins Piperacillin Sodium, Sterile see p 274
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