History of Evolution - Darwin

Emma Lloyd
Flashcards by Emma Lloyd, updated more than 1 year ago
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Prof Pritchard lecture 2
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What are the three proposed mechanisms of change? Special creation, Lamarck and Darwin
Lamarck's theory: - Changes in the environment give changes in the use of an organ - A characteristic is acquired - changes are inherited (Inheritance of acquired characteristics)
Classic example of Lamarck's theory? Giraffe's. He suggested they used to have short necks but kept having to strain for higher up food so offspring had longer necks and so on.
Summary of Lamarck? - Predicts gradual change - Needs a long period of time - Driven by the environment - Change is NOT due to chance - internal desire to improve - increase in complexity
Darwin's theory of evolution: - mutation causes change and if it is a helpful mutation the organism survives longer and passes genes on better - change IS due to chance
Where did Darwin study? Started in Shrewsbury, then to Edinburgh, then Cambridge, then London and lived the rest of his life in the Down House.
Who were Darwin's grandfathers? Erasmus Darwin and Josiah Wedgewood who were both members of the Lunar society
What did Darwin do at Edinburgh? - He was a failed medic -He collected beetles -Learned Geology (the kind that Lyell published) - Learned taxidermy - Attended a variety of lectures
What did Darwin do after Edinburgh? He became a clergyman and followed a new religious dogma
How did Darwin begin travelling? He took part in the Voyage of the Beagle. He eventually became the captain's naturalist.
What did Darwin learn on the Beagle? - Succession of types (decent with modification) - Representative types - variation and geographical isolation - Huge amount of continuous variation - Ocean islands have migrations and common descent
What did Darwin look into when he returned from Voyages? Sequence of fossils, rudimentary organs, comparative anatomy, embryology, agriculture, new explorations and Malthus
What findings did Malthus publish? - Overproduction of young - Rising population outstrips resources - Lower classes are 'irresponsible' He thought the solution was to regulate family size of lower class people to stop them producing more children they can't support
What did Wallace do? He too came up with the idea of Natural Selection and was going to publish a paper on it before Darwin. The only difference in their beliefs was that Wallace didn't believe that man was the result of natural selection. They published a joint paper on the topic in the end
What did Huxley do in birmingham? He was known as Darwin's bulldog and he popularised the theory of Natural selection by countering Wilberforce and Owen
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