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GCSE Biology B3.1

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What is this? 2000px-Diffusion.svg.png (image/png) Diffusion
What is osmosis? Diffusion of water from a dilute to a concentrated solution through a PPM that allows passage of water mlocules.
What is this? active-transport.jpg (image/jpg) Active Transport
How would you make an exchange surface more effective in humans? > Having a large surface area > Being thin to provide a short diffusion path villi.gif (image/gif)
What do the villi have/do to provide a surface area? Have an extensive network of capillaries to absorb products of digestion by diffusion and active transport.
What is the surface area of the lungs increased by? The alveoli
Why is surface area needed? To increase the reach to the centre of the cell, as the bigger the cell, the harder it is for fluids to reach from the surface.
What is the difference between active transport and diffusion? Active T > Occurs AGAINST concentration gradient > Requires energy
What is Active Transport? Substances that are absorbed against a concentration gradient. This enables cells to absorb ions from very dilute solutions.
What is Diffusion? The net movement of particles from a high concentration to a low concentration through a PPM. This is towards to concentration gradient.
When we breathe in, which way does our inside torso structure move? Our ribcage expands up and out and our diaphragm flattens. This is ventilation.
Why do we breathe? So that oxygen from the air can diffuse into the bloodstream and carbon dioxide can diffuse out of it and into the air.
Give three features of alveoli that allow large amounts of oxygen to enter the blood. > Large surface area > Thin walls to allow shorter diffusion path > Sufficient blood supply
In plants, which way does CO2 enter foliage? Diffusion
What absorbs water and mineral ions in plants? Roots
What is the surface area of roots increased by? Root hairs
What is the surface area of the leaves increased by? Flattened space and internal air spaces
Why do plants have a stomata? To obtain CO2 from the atmosphere and remove O2 produced in photosynthesis.
What is transpiration? Evaporation and water vapour loss from the surface of the leaf.
Where does most of the loss of water vapour take place? The stomata
Evaporation is more rapid in which conditions? > Hot > Windy > Dry
How does the stomata prevent the leaf from dehydrating? If the plant loses more water than is replaced, the stomata closes to prevent wilting.
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