OCR C1 - Chemistry

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OCR - Science B - Gateway Science - 2011 Specifications

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Created by Katzz about 5 years ago
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Chemistry General Quiz - 2
Question Answer
How is crude oil separated by fractional distillation? > Oil heated until parts of it have boiled > Parts cooled down > Liquids collected
What are the different fractions from crude oil? LPG Petrol Paraffin Diesel Heating oil Fuel oils Bitumen
Why are fossil fuels non-renewable? They can't be made again or are being used up faster than they're formed
Why does fractional distillation work? Because each fraction has a different boiling point
Why are fossil fuels finite resources? They are no longer being made or are being made extremely slowly Conditions on earth now are different than they were a million years ago.
How is crude oil made? Bodies of planktons compressed over 260-650 million years.
Why can crude oil be separated by fractional distillation? Molecules in different fractions have different length chains. The forces between molecules are different.
What are intermolecular forces are what happens to them during boiling? They're the forces between molecules and they're broken down during boiling.
Why does bitumen and heavy oils have high boiling points? Have LONG chains and so there are STRONG forces of attraction b/w molecules. They're DIFFICULT to separate and a LOT of energy is needed to pull molecules away from each other. ^Same for small molecules - Short chains, weak forces, easy separate, less energy, low boiling point
What are the problems caused my drilling oil? > Expensive to return landscape to former state. > Oil slicks - harm animals/pollute beaches > Bird feathers covered in oil, ingests oil and this causes death. > Clean-up detergents also harmful to environment
What are the conditions needed for 'cracking'? > Catalyst > High temperature > High pressure
What happens during cracking? Long-chain hydrocarbons heated at high temperatures and catalyst... Split into small molecules e.g. petrol
What are the main characteristics that are looked at when choosing a fuel? > energy value > easy to use > cost > pollution caused > availability > storage method > toxicity
What is the word equation for a fuel burning in the air? fuel + oxygen ➞ carbon dioxide + water
What are word equations for incomplete combustion? fuel + oxygen ➞ carbon monoxide + water fuel + oxygen ➞ carbon + water
Katherine's heater is over 50 years old. She has never had it checked. Explain why this is dangerous. (3) It could be burning in shortage of oxygen 1 It will give off soot and carbon monoxide which are toxic gases (1) Carbon monoxide is very dangerous when breathed in (1)
What are the advantages of complete combustion over incomplete combustion? More energy released Less soot produced More heat released Carbon monoxide isn't produced
What are the environmental problems caused by burning coal? Gives off sulfur dioxide - which dissolves in rain - acid rain is made - damages stone buildings and kills fish and trees,