Human Biology Midterm 2 : Tissues

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Flashcards on Human Biology Midterm 2 : Tissues , created by michellelynnlebl on 11/04/2014.
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Question Answer
What are tissues? How many types of specialized cells are in the human body? Group of specialized cells that perform a particular function, bound together by cell junctions and extracellular matrix There are over 200 types of specialized cells in the human body.
Four basic tissue types Epithelium Connective Muscular Nervous
Epithelial : What does it do? What does it consist of? It is the only tissue exposed to what? • Covers and lines organs • Consist of tightly packed cells • Only tissue with an exposed (apical) surface that borders on a lumen or the environment.
What is the function of epithelial tissue? • Protection, secretion, and absorption
What are the 3 shapes or types of epithelial tissue? • Squamous • Cuboidal • Columnar
What types of organization can there be with epithelial? • Simple • Straitified • Pseudostratified
What is the extracellular matrix of epithelial tissue? basement membrane, which supports epithelial cells and connects the epithelial tissues to neighbouring tissues.
What type of junction within epithelial tissue? What are they made of? tight junctions made of proteins that seal adjoining cells so there’s no leakage
What are squamous epithelial cells? What do they do? Where can you find them? What organization can they be? • Flat cells that have a squashed appearance • Protection and absorption • Skin, lining of capillaries • Can be simple (lungs, heart), stratified (skin, esophagus) and pseudostratified (bronci and male urethra)
What are cuboidal epithelial cells? What do they make up and what do they do? Where can you find them? WHat organization can they be? • Cube or dice shaped • Make up glands (secretory) and absorb water and small molecules • Kidney, pancreas, and other exocrine and endocrine glands. Often produce hormones or other enzymes • Can be simple or stratified
What are columnar epithelial cells? What do they do? Where can you find them? What are goblet cells? • Column or pillar shaped (longer than wide) • Secretion and absorption • Found all through the digestive and respiratory systems. • Intestinal lining, stomach lining, lungs and other organs Specialized cells produce mucus in the intestine (Goblet cells)
What are the 6 types of connective tissue? Loose connective tissue Adipose Fibrous Cartilage Bone Blood
What does connective tissue do? What does it allow? • Bind other tissues together • Allow organs to move and conform with body, anchor organs in place, absorb shock.
What is Fascia? What can manipulate it? a thin sheath of fibrous tissue enclosing a muscle or other organ. can be manipulated by osteopaths (basically massaging)
What are 5 other functions of connective tissue? PESPR o preserve structural integrity o exchange metabolites o store energy o protect against infection o repair after injury
All connective tissue is composed of 3 components… • Cell type (often secrete ground substance) • Ground Substance (non-cellular matrix of tissue fluid in which the cells and fibres sit, secreted by cells in it. Allows for transport, diffusion, communication) • Fibres (extra-cellular structures in ground substance). There are 3 kinds
What are the 3 kinds of fibres? o Elastin (rubber like protein that allows the tissue to stretch without breaking) o Collagen (provides strength) o Adhesive proteins (fibronectin and laminin: organize protein and carb
What is loose connective tissue also called? Areolar
What does loose connective tissue look like? • Appears as a mat of interwoven fibres with small spaces in it
What do the spaces in loose connective tissue contain? • Spaces contain fibroblasts (cells) that secrete and maintain fibres in matrix
What is the most widespread connective tissue in body? Loose connective tissue
What does loose connective tissue connect? Hold in place? Acts as what for where? Allows for what? Forms what? • Connects epithelial to underlying tissue • Holds organs in place • Acts as padding for soles of feet and elsewhere • Allows lungs and bladder to expand • Forms internal framework of body
what can keep loose connective tissue from degrading and what can case it? • Exercise can keep it from degrading, promotes new blood vessels in this tissue • Smoking can cause early degradation
What is adipose tissue composed of? What are its functions ? (2) Is it mostly cells or matrix? • Composed of fat-filled cells • Functions in protection and insulation of the organs it surrounds and under the skin • Major energy store • Consists mostly of cells, little matrix
What is the cell type in adipose? What is it specialized ? • Cell type= adipocytes (specialized in production and storage of lipids, large lipid droplets that expand and shrink)
What are the 2 forms of fat? White fat Brown fat
What is white fat? What doe sit produce? How much of a healthy person's weight is white fat? one large droplet, produces leptin which affects hunger and appetite, constitutes 20-25% of weight in healthy person
Who has more brown fat? What does it contain more so than white fat? What does it generate? found in higher concentration in newborns and hibernating animals; contains many small droplets and has more mitochondria; generates heat
What is visceral fat linked to? Visceral, or waist, fat is linked to metabolic disturbances and increased risk of cardiovascular disease.
What 2 things are made of fibrous connective tissue? • Ligaments (bone to bone) and tendons (muscle to bone)
What does fibrous connective tissue have a lot of? A little of? • Great strength, little flexibility
What type of cells does fibrous have? What are fibres? Is there much ground substance? • Cells = fibrocytes, squeezed between fibres • Fibres: mostly dense, tightly packed layers of collagen • Little ground substance
What are the 2 types of fibrous CT? o Regular (collagen arranged parallel) o Irregular (bundles are randomly oriented)
What does cartilage allow for ? (2) • Strong, flexible and allows for cushioning of joints • Shock absorption
What kind of cell does cartilage have? What do they secret? Where do they get trapped? chondrocytes (secret a dense matrix around themselves, trapping the cells in a small called a Lacunae
What's cartilage's fibre? mostly collagen and elastin for flexibility
What is cartilage's ground substance? WHat does this aid with? Are there many blood vessels in cartilage and what does this inhibit? • Ground substance = has a high water content which aids in shock absorption • Small amount of blood vessels = inhibits healing
What are the 3 types of cartilage what do they consist of? where can you find them? • Hyaline: has only collagen fibres. Ends of nose, ends of ribs and fetal skeletons • Elastic : more elastin, more flexibre. Ear • Fibrocartilage: mostly tight bundles of collagen, withstand tension and pressure. Between vertebrae and kneecaps
What is bone used for? • Structural support, point of resistance for muscles, anchor for tissues and organs
What systems does bone form? • Forms skeletal organ system and axial (spine, skull, etc.) and appendicular (limbs) skeletons
What are bone's cells? Fibres? Ground substance? • Cell = osteocytes (secret collagen, calcium and phosphorus; found in Lacunae) • Fibres = collagen imbedded in ground substance • Ground substance = solid matrix of calcium, phosphorus, collagen fibres.
What does bone act as a reservoir for? What can it produce? • Acts as reservoir for calcium ( which is important for nerves, muscle function) • Some areas produce red blood cells
What helps preserve bone mass and when does it naturally begin degrading? • Some areas produce red blood cells • Running and resistance training help preserve mass which begins to degrade after 30 yrs.
What does blood transport? What does it connect? • Transports O2, nutrients, hormones and other metabolites and removes CO2 waste • Connects everything in body
What are the 3 cells in blood? o red blood cells (erythrocytes; transport oxygen and are produced in bone) o White blood cells (leukocytes, there are 5 types; act in defense) o Platelets (function to stop bleeding and respond to injury)
What are blood's fibres? proteins
What is blood's ground substance made of? • Ground substance = protein rich liquid matrix called plasma. Contains platelets, nutrients, nitrogenous waste, hormones, dissolved CO2.
What does nervous tissue do? • Perception, signaling and response • Functions to initiate and conduct electrical signals from one part of the body to another • Electrical signals function to stimulate stuff
True or False? • Nerve cells can be a few microns or 2 metres long true
What is a neuron? What are its 5 parts? • Signaling cell. Consists of: 1. Dendrite (small branches that bring electrical info into cell 2. Cell body 3. Axon (branch which conducts electrical signals out from the cell 4. Neurotransmitters (chemicals that facilitate communication) 5. Synapses (junction between neurons)
What is a neuroglia? Is it common? • Act in support and protection, as well as a ground substance that binds the nervous tissue together • Most common cells
What are the 3 parts of neuroglia? 1. Astrocytes (provide nutrients to neuron) 2. Microglia (remove bacteria and other foreign from tissue) 3. Oligodendrites and Schwann cells (produce the myelin coating around axon)
What is muscle tissue? • Tissue specialized to convert chemical energy into mechanical energy
What are muscle's functions? (5) • Function in locomotion, digestion, cardiovascular system, respiration, sensory...
What are muscles filled with to make them contract? • Muscles, called fibres, have specialized to be filled with actin and myosin and function to contract
What are the 2 types of muscle systems? Voluntary (conscious control) Involuntary (controlled by ANS)
What are the 3 types of muscle? Which are voluntary and which are involuntary? • Smooth (involuntary, organs) • Cardiac (involuntary) • Skeletal or striated (voluntary, movement)
what are the muscle's cells called? muscle fibres
Is smooth muscle voluntary? Is it striated? How fast are the contractions and how long do they last? What are the 2 layers? • Involuntary • No striations • Contracts slowly, longer lasting • 2 layers : longitudinal and circular around tubes
What does cardiac muscle do? (2) • Circulatory system engine: • Moves blood through arteries, capillaries and veins.
How does cardiac muscle show both characteristics of skeletal and smooth muscle? • Like smooth muscle, cardiac fibres are under involuntary control, and have powerful contractions. • Like skeletal muscle, it is striated with parallel arranged actin and myosin bundles.
What are intercalated disks for? what does this allow? communication of chemicals and stuff, allows for cardiac muscle to act on its own
What is striated muscle used for? Where is it attached and how does it act there? • Use for locomotion, under voluntary control • Attached to bone, acts in opposition or pivot.
Why is it striated? • Arrangement of actin and myosin give it a striated or striped appearance.
What does resistance training increase in terms of muscles? • Resistance training can increase size of muscle fibres, but not number.
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