Univeristy of NSW History 1B Flashcards

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History 1B - UNSW

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Question Answer
What is Chivalry? What is a chevauchee? Medieval European Code of Honour (for nobles) A campaign of raiding against an enemy to reduce the productivity of their lands.
What are the 5 types of Military History? Inspirational, Nationalistic, antiquarian(re-enactors history as hobby), military utilitarianism, civilian utilitarianism
What is a Sarissa? A long (4-7m) spear used by the Macedonian Phalanx
What is a Roman Tactica? Roman military tactics manual (used for training young nobles) surviving tactica written by Vegetius (De Re Militari) and Sextus Julius Frontinius (Stratagems)
When were the Middle ages? 600-1000 (early) 1001-1300 (High) 1301-1500 (late) all dates are creations of historians
When/Where was the last burning for witchcraft? Scotland 1727
When were the Dark Ages? Why is this term no longer used? Early middle ages (see above) is Eurocentric, ignores the Islamic Golden age that was occurring
What does ‘Viking’ mean? Expedition
What was the more common form of warfare in the middle ages (open or Siege)? Siege
Who were the two Harolds in 11th century England? Harold Godwinson (the last English king) and Harald Harada (king of Norway who invaded England from the North while William of Normandy landed in the south
When was the Battle of Tours? Who fought in it? 732, Franks and the Umayyad Caliphate
What battle took place in 1066? The battle of Hastings (also Stamford Bridge)
What were the Crusader states created after the First crusade? Kingdom of Jerusalem, Principality of Antioch, County of Tripoli, County of Edessa
When was the First Crusade? 1095-99
Name 3 of the military orders founded during the crusades Knights Templar, Knights Hostpitallia, Teutonic Knight
What was the result of the battle of Hattin? (when) Destruction of military capabilities of Kingdom of Jerusalem (1187)
Who were the Mamluks? A Muslim warrior order who wanted to purge the Holy Land of ‘Franks’and drove them out of Antioch, Tripoli and Acre. Originally slave soldiers who were converted to Islam and were loyal directly to the caliphate, gained increasing political power and eventually established their own ruling dynasty in Egypt.
What other force threatened Muslim power at the time of the Crusades? Mongol Empire
When was the last Crusade (numbered)? 9th crusade (1271-72)
What was the council of Clermont A catholic Council in which the pope (Urban II) declared a Cursade against Muslims in the Holy Land
When was the siege of Jerusalem (Saladin)? 1187, Following the Battle of Hatin
When were the attempts to retake Jeruselem? The third Crusade (1189-1192)
When was the sack of Constantinople? 1204
Which military order crusaded in the Baltic? (against pagans) Teutonic Knights (started in 1147)
Who won the Battle of Grunwald? (When) Polish-Lithuanian Forces (against pagans) in 1410
Against which group were the Albigansian Crusades fought? The Cathars (dualist heresy)
When first Baltic Crusade? 1147
What was the full name of Teutonic Knights? Order of the Brothers of Germanic House of St Mary and Jerusalem
When did Innocent III sanction war, and against who? Albegesians in 1209
What were the 4 arms of Byzantine foreign strategic policy? Military, Diplomatic, Economic, Informational
What was the Byzantine office responsible for intelligence gathering? Bureau of Barbarians
What happened to Constantinople in 1204? Sacked by Christian Crusaders
What surrounded the City of Constantinople? Theodosian Walls (land walls) and Golden Horns (sea walls)
What were the two types of armies in the middle Byzantine Empire? (Differences) Thematic (division) and tagmatic (battalion)
What did the Byzantines call their heavy cavalry? Cataphract
How was the army re-organised in the 5th century? Increasing importance of cavalry
How was the army re-organised in the 7th century? Thematic system
Who was the slayer of Bulgars? Basil II
When was battle of Dorostolon? 971
Where were the major technological developments in Medieval warfare? Missile Weapons, Siege Engines, fortress/defensive constructions
How was the castle of Rochester taken in 1215? Undermined
What were ‘Pike and Shot’ formations? Formations of combined melee and missile (archers, hand guners) troops.
What happened at the battle of Courtrai (AKA..?) ? Battle of Golden Spurs - 1000 French nobles killed Flemish common infantry stripped them of their gold
Who was the French king who invaded Italy in 1494? Charles II (wanted to take Naples)
What was La Trace Italienne? Star fortress construction
What is an Ummah? Community of Muslim Believers
What was a Tumen? A unit employed by Turkish and Mongol armies, consisting of 10,000 men
Who were Janissaries? Elite Ottoman infantry (Muslim)
Name 4 Muslim caliphates? Rashidun Caliphate (632–661) Umayyad Caliphate (661-750) Abbasid Caliphate (750–1517) Ottoman Caliphate (1517–1924)
What were Condottieri? Italian word for mercenaries (also translates to contractor)
Who was the leader of the White Company? John Hawkwood
What unit formation dominated European warfare during the 14th and 15th centuries? Swiss pike block
What was a tercio? A Spanish military unit (based on the Roman Legion) that employs both melee and gunpowder infantry
Which battle broke Swiss mercenary dominance? Battle of Bicocca (1522)
Famous lecture on Military Revolutions? Michael Roberts 1955 entitled 'Military Revolution 1560-1660'
Which two leaders embodied the military revolution for Michael Roberts? Gustavus Adolphus II (Sweden) and Maurice of Nassau (Netherlands)
Which two historians helped develop the theory of Military revolutions? Jeremy Black and Geoffery Parker
What are 5 suggested military revolutions? 17th century French Industrial WWI Nuclear
What does RMA stand for? Revolution of Military Affairs
Michael Robert's 4 main proofs of Military Revolution? Tactics and Size of armies Scale of warfare Ambitious strategies Impact on social and political development (fiscal state)
Geoffery Parker: enlightenment influence on armies, Mil rev had origins much earlier than Michael Roberts, emphasises development of Fortifications unlike Roberts.
Jeremy Black: critical of concept, no specific revolution, gradual development, these were not new technologies or structures they just became common during this time
In which state did the 30 years’ war start? Bohemia
How many states were in the HRE at the start of the war? 255
Who was the ‘Lion of the North’? Gustavus II Adolphus
When did Gustavus II die? 1632 - Battle of Luetzen
Which battle saw the defeat of Spanish Tercios? 1643 - Battle of Rocroi
When was the Bohemian Revolt? 1618-1621
When was the union of Lublin (between whom?) 1569 - Poland and Lithuania
What was the highpoint of Polish power and influence? Battle of Vienna (1683), marked the furthest advance of Ottoman Empire into central Europe
How did non-European militaries react to European forces, tactics and technology? Incorporating (Iroquois) - adjacent to existing Adapting (Maori) - to suit existing Importing (Japan) - as is
Why did the Maori’s not have a considerable tech disadvantage against the British? Traded with British for modern firearms
Where, and in what year was gunpowder invented? 8th century, China
When was the Age of Absolutism? 1550-1800
What does La Grande Siecle mean? 'The great sentry' used to describe the French state during AoA
Who were the Jacobites? Supporters of the Catholic King, King James II of England
Which war can alternatively be described as the first world war? The Seven Years War (1756-63)
When were the wars of Louis XIV? 1661-1715
Other names for the 9 Years War? War of the Grand Alliance War of the League of Augsburg
What is the fiscal military state? State that bases its economic model on the sustainment of its armed forces
Who were the major maritime Atlantic powers in the 18th century? Britain, France, Dutch (United Provinces)
What were the three types of European colonies? Settlement, exploitation, plantation
What were Sepoys? Native Indian recruits who were trained and fought in British style of warfare
What name did colonial Americans give the 7 years’ war? French and Indian War
Why was the American war of Independence a rebellion rather than revolution? No social or economic changes followed, the same colonial elites remained in power
Which European powers decline in the late 18th century? Spanish and the Dutch
What event prompted French military reforms? Defeat in the Seven Year (French and Indian) War
What were some of the major tactical developments of the late 18th century? Column as a form of attack not just manoeuvrer, development of specialised light infantry
Who said “Man will never be free until the last king is strangled with the entrails of the last priest”? Dennis Diderot
What was the Levee en masse, and in what year was it decreed? Mass conscription during the French Revolutionary Wars, 1793 (23rd August)
Why did France invade Spain during the Age of Napoleon? Put Joseph on Spanish throne, post battle of Trafalgar and to isolate Britain
How many Frenchmen fought in the Napoleonic wars? 2.8 million
When was the Battle of Waterloo? 18 June 1815
Who called Napoleon “the God of War”? Carl van Clausewitz
What 5 things does every infantryman need, according to Napoleon? Musket, ammunition, knapsack, provisions (4 days), entrenching tool
When was the Thirty Years War? 1618-48
When was the 100 Years War? 1337-1453 (England vs France)
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