Vineyard Management


WSET Level 3 Viticulture (The Vineyard) Flashcards on Vineyard Management, created by Michelle Ames on 11/17/2018.
Michelle Ames
Flashcards by Michelle Ames, updated more than 1 year ago
Michelle Ames
Created by Michelle Ames over 5 years ago

Resource summary

Question Answer
What does a grower need to consider when planting a new vineyard? Environmental conditions, business considerations, grape variety, and any local regulations.
How are young vines often protected from animals? Plastic sleeves.
What does ‘third leaf’ mean? The first crop of grapes used for wine is normally harvested in the third year.
How many years does it take a grapevine to develop to the point where its fruit is at the optimal quality level? Around an average of six years.
When are most vines replaced? Between 30-50 years old.
The term ‘old vine’ is not tightly regulated. What is the range of years people use to qualify a vine as old? 20-100 years, although often it is 50 years or older.
What are the pros and cons of 'old vines'? Pro: Better quality fruit with greater concentration of flavour. Cons: Yields are smaller and vines become increasingly susceptible to disease as they age.
Why would a grower want to train a vine low or high? Low to benefit from the heat retained by the soil. High to avoid frosts.
What is head training? Leaving vines with relatively little permanent wood. They can be either spur-pruned or replacement cane-pruned.
What is cordon training? Creating vines with one or more permanent horizontal arms or 'cordons'. The vines are usually spur-pruned.
What is an advantage and disadvantage for cordon training? A sturdy cordon allows for mechanisation in the vineyard, but this type of training takes longer to establish.
What is pruning? The removal of unwanted leaves, canes and permanent wood. It takes place every winter and summer.
What is the purpose of winter pruning? To determine the number and location of the buds that will form shoots in the coming growing season. It is important to make sure that the buds are not close together.
What is spur pruning? One year old wood cut down to only 1-3 buds. The spurs are distributed either along a cordon of permanent wood (cordon training) or around the top of the trunk (head training).
What is replacement cane pruning? One year old wood with 8-20 (6-10 CSW) buds. Typically only one or two canes are retained and tied horizontally to the trellis for support. Often seen on head trained vines. Requires a large, skilled work force.
What is another name for replacement cane pruning? Guyot training. One cane (single direction to give maximum separation between grape bunches) is Single Guyot, two (both directions) is Double Guyot.
What is the purpose of summer pruning? To trim the canopy to restrict vegetative growth and direct sugar production to the grape. It can also involve leaf stripping so grapes have optimum exposure to sunshine.
What is a trellis? A permanent struction of stakes and wires that are used to support any replacement canes and the vine's annual growth.
What is a bush vine? Vines that do not have a trellis system and the shoots hang down, often to the ground. Typically head trained and spur-pruned.
What kind of trellis system is best in warm or hot, dry and sunny regions? None. The hanging leaves shade the grapes from too much sun. This system is avoided in cool or wet regions because it restricts air flow. Untrellised vines are not suitable for mechanical harvesting.
What is cordon training? Same as Guyot, except spur-pruned. The branch(es) soon become as woody as the trunk, making it easy to see the difference between an established cordon and a Guyot system.
What is pergola training? Overhead vines are trained up a tall support, such as a tree or latticework, and allowed to spread out horizontally with the fruit hanging down. They can provide shade for people or other crops.
What is gobelet? When shoots of head trained, spur-pruned vines are tied together at the tips. This is practised in places like Beaujolais.
What are the three most important reasons for canopy management? 1. Controls the amount of sunlight. 2. Air circulation (and disease prevention). 3. Aids mechanisation at harvest and for spraying.
What is the most widely used trellising system? Vertical Shoot Positioning (VSP). The vine's shoots are trained vertically and tied into place to keep the canopy open. The grape bunches are positioned below the leaves in the fruiting area.
What factors influence the density of planting in a vineyard? Availability of water and nutrients. In conditions of limited water, lower density is optimal. In conditions of lower nutrients, high density (with strict pruning practices) is optimal. Very fertile soils are not suitable for viticulture.
How is a yield measured? By weight or volume.
What is green harvesting? Removing immature grapes shortly after veraison. Done to lower yields, but risky if picked at the wrong time. The remaining grapes could grow larger to compensate, which brings higher yields and dilutes flavours.
What are some pests that may damage vines? Phylloxera (roots), nematodes (roots), hungry birds and mammals (fruit), and insects (fruit and leaves).
How have a few areas in the world remained phylloxera-free? They are generally isolated from other wine regions or are rich in sandy soils that are inhospitable to the pest.
The problem of nematodes has become more prevalent with… ? The increased use of shallow-rooted rootstocks and drip irrigation which reduces the vine’s tendency to send its roots deep into the soil in search of water.
What are two main fungal diseases? Downy and powdery mildew - Warm, humid regions. Infects the green parts of the vine and grapes lose fruity flavours. Grey rot - Thrives in damp conditions. Bad for black grapes, can become noble rot for white grapes.
What are other names for powdery and downy mildew? Powdery = Oidium. Downy = Peronospora.
What is Botrytis cinerea known as in French and German? Pourriture noble, and Edelfaule.
How are fungal diseases controlled? Fungicides. Powdery mildew = sulfer-based spray. Downy = copper-based (Bordeaux mixture). Spraying must stop close to harvest time. Canopy management. Financially and environmentally more friendly.
How are viruses spread? Usually by cuttings and nematodes. They are persistent with no cure, and can only be eradicated by digging up the vines and sanitising the land.
How are bacterial diseases spread? Usually by insects (sharpshooters) and animals carrying the microbes. Quarantine and killing the insects are the only way to prevent disease. Like viruses, only digging up the vines and sanitising the land will eradicate an infection.
What’s an example of a bacterial disease spread by the glassy-winged sharpshooter? Pierce’s disease, a bacteriological contamination of the host vine resulting in premature leaf fall.
What are the three main options available to growers who want to reduce the use of chemicals in their vineyard? 1. Sustainable agriculture. Restricted use of man-made chemicals, integrated pest management. 2. Organic agriculture. Very restricted. Must be certified to use term on label. 3. Biodynamic agriculture. Philosophy and cosmology with the use of 'preparations'. Also certified.
What is Integrated Pest Management (IPM)? The processes of considering each pest individually to target weaknesses with minimal intervention and effect on other animals, the vines and the environment.
What is an example of a cover crop that can act as a natural biofumigant to nematodes? Mustard.
What does the USDA NOP do? Designates the certifying bodies and provides criteria that a vineyard must meet to be approved as organic. A vineyard must be free from all banned materials for a minimum of three years.
Whose philosophy began biodynamic agricultural practices? Rudolf Steiner in the early 20th century.
How many special preparations are fundamental to biodynamic winegrowing? Nine.
What is the certifying body for biodynamic viticulture? Demeter International.
What makes sustainable viticulture different from organic or biodynamic? While the end goal is the same, it does not adhere to a black and white set of rules. It also addresses issues that are ignored by the other two, such as climate change, water scarcity, social goals and economic viability.
True or false: Premium wines can only be made from hand harvesting. False.
What are the pros and cons of machine harvesting? Pros: Speed, can work through the night, saves money. Cons: Non-selective, MOG (matter other than grapes), cannot be used on slopes, cannot pick whole bunches.
When is hand picking essential? For grapes infected with noble rot, when whole bunches are needed, and on vineyard sites which are too steep for machines.
What is coulure? When more flowers than normal fail to fertilise.
What is millerandage? When grapes form without seeds and remain quite small.
What are the most common tools used to measure degrees Brix? Refractometer (modern) and hydrometer.
What is the calculation to estimate the ethanol level in a finished dry wine popular in the New World? The conversion factor is about 5/9 or 55% of the Brix value. Grapes harvested at 24° Brix will yield a wine with an alcohol level around 13.3% (24 x 0.55).
What is Baume? A unit of measurement used in France which reflects the potential alcohol level in ml per 100ml of wine. Freshly pressed grape juice with 12° Baume will produce wine with a maximum of 12% alcohol.
What is the formula for Oechsle? (density - 1.0) x 1,000 Must with a density reading of 1.068 will have an Oechsle reading of 68, which is roughly 9% potential alcohol.
What are the minimum regulations for each Pradikat in regards to Oechsle readings? Kabinett – 67-82° Oe Spätlese – 76-90° Oe Auslese – 83-100° Oe Beerenauslese and Eiswein – 110–128° Oe Trockenbeerenauslese – 150–154° Oe
What is the measurement used in Austria that measures the exact sugar content of the grape juice by weight? Klosterneuburger Mostwaage (KMW). Very similar to the Oechsle scale. 1° KMW =~ 5° Oe OR Baume * 1.53
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