Biology Unit 3 Test

E.M. Flood
Flashcards by E.M. Flood, updated more than 1 year ago
E.M. Flood
Created by E.M. Flood almost 2 years ago
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Freshman/Biology/Unit 3/November 2018
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Define an element A substance that consists entirely of one type of atom
What are some examples of elements? Oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, copper, sodium
Define an atom. The smallest unit of an element that retains the properties of that element
What are protons? Positively charged part of atom
What are neutrons? No charge, and are in the nucleus of an atom
What are electrons? Negatively charged particles that are in motion outside the nucleus of the atom
Electrons are the particle that allow atoms to _____. bond together into molecules
Electrons hang out in rings around the nucleus called ___, and each can only hold so many. orbitals
All atoms want their outer shell to be _____. To do this, they have to _____ to _____ to complete the orbital. "full" of electrons; bond with another atom; share/steal electrons
You can tell how many electrons an atom has by its _____. atomic number
Define a molecule. List some examples. Two or more atoms bonded together; O2, CO2
Define a compound. List an example. A molecule that contains two or more different elements; CO2
What is the molecular formula? List an example. An easy way of writing out what atoms are in a molecule; Carbon dioxide -> CO2 (Carbon -> hydrogen -> alphabetical order)
Define a chemical bond. A connection formed between two atoms
What is an ionic bond? One atom steals the electrons from another, then they are magnetically attracted
What is a covalent bond? Two atoms sharing electrons
What is an organic molecule? List some examples. A molecule that contains carbon-hydrogen bonds; CH4, C6H12O6
What is the importance of carbon? ~ Likes to form 4 covalent bonds, so it bonds easily with other atoms ~ Important for LIFE
Define a macromolecule. Bigger molecules
Define a monomer. Molecules that are small subunits of potentially bigger molecules
Define a polymer. Giant molecules made out of monomers
What is a single bond? A covalent bond resulting from the sharing of one pair of electrons
What is a double bond? A covalent bond resulting from the sharing of two pairs of electrons
What are the four types of macromolecules? Carbohydrates, fats/lipids, proteins, nucleic acids
What is the importance of carbs? Energy & structure
What is the overall structure of carbs? Carbon/Hydrogen/Oxygen rings
What are the monomers of carbs? Monosaccharides: "simple sugars" such as glucose, sucrose, lactose (used as a quick source of energy for cells)
What are the polymers of carbs? Polysaccharides: "complex sugars" made of many glucose molecules together
What is the importance of lipids/fats? Cell membranes, warmth, energy for cells, helps in digestion of certain proteins & vitamins
What is the overall structure of lipids/fats? Glycogen backbone plus 3 fatty acids (separate are monomers, all together are a polymer)
What are the two main types of fats? What's the difference between them? Saturated: solid at room temp., carbons are "saturated" with lots of attached hydrogens Unsaturated: liquid at room temp., carbons are not saturated
What is the importance of nucleic acids? Storing & interpreting genetic information
What is the overall structure of nucleic acids? Monomer: nucleotide Polymer: DNA, RNA
What is the importance of proteins? Energy, transporting hemoglobin in blood, movement of muscles, structure in cartilage, and enzymes
What are monomers of proteins? Amino acids - 20 different ones strung together in different combos
What's the part of an amino acids that differentiates between them? The "R" group
What are the polymers of proteins? All proteins have a distinct 3D shape that help them do their jobs
Describe the process of dehydration synthesis. Combines monomers into polymers. Starting with two molecules that contain O & H; bond the two molecules into one big molecule by removing a water molecule
Describe the process of hydrolysis Breaks polymers into monomers by adding water
What is the primary protein structure? A sequence of a chain of amino acids
What is the secondary protein structure? Either a pleated sheet or alpha helix that occurs when the primary structure are linked by hydrogen bonds
What is the tertiary protein structure? Occurs when certain attractions are present between parts of the alpha helices and pleated sheets
What is the quaternary protein structure? A protein consisting of more than one amino acid chain
What does "Hydro" mean? "Water"
What does "Lysis" mean? "break"
What does "Deyhdration" mean? "taking water out"
What does "Synthesis" mean? "Build/combine"
What are the steps of the scientific method? 1.) Make a research question 2.) Background info 3.) Make hypothesis/prediction 4.) Test it 5.) Record data 6/7.) Display/Analyze data 8.) repeat experiment 9/10.) share results/ask new question
What is an independent variable? (manipulated variable); The one where YOU have control over choice of groups/amounts, what you set up during a procedure
What is a dependent variable? (responding variable); The one that you MEASURE, the data
What is a constant (controlled) variable? Variables that do not change between tested groups and stays the same
What is an experimental group? A group that has all the constant variables AND the independent variable
What is a control group? Group that has all the constant varibales but none of the independent variables; the "normal" group
What is a human error? What's an example? When you make a mistake in the procedure. Accidentally spilling something or didn't time something exactly
What is an experimental error? What's an example? When there is something wrong or something you didn't take into account for in your procedures; Doctors in 50s not including women in study when researching symptoms for heart attacks
Define a catalyst. substances that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction by lowering a reaction activation's energy
Define an active site. the specific region of an enzyme where a substrate binds and catalysis takes place or where a chemical reaction occurs.
Define denaturation. a process in which proteins or nucleic acids lose the quaternary structure, tertiary structure, and secondary structure which is present in their native state, by application of some external stress
Define an enzyme-substrate complex. The intermediate formed when a substrate molecule interacts with the active site of an enzyme
What is activation energy? Give an example. Energy that is involved with chemical reactions regardless of whether the overall chemical reaction releases or absorbs energy; burning paper with a match
Define a chemical reaction. A process when a set of chemicals changes/transforms into another
What's a substrate? The substance acted upon by an enzyme.
Elements/compounds that enter a chemical reaction are _____. Those produced by a chemical reaction are _____. reactants; products
What is an exergonic (catabolic) reaction? What's an example? When energy is released; combustion
What's an endergonic (anabolic) reaction? What's an example? Energy is absorbed; protein synthesis
What's the difference between the two reactions? Endergonic builds up, exergonic breaks down
What are factors that regulate enzyme activity? Temperature, pH, regulatory molecules
What would happen to the enzymatic reaction if the enzyme lost its shape? The enzyme would not work the same way and might become useless altogether
Explain how an enzyme works during a chemical reaction An enzyme allows reactants to bond by providing a site where these reactants can be brought together to react. A site reduces the energy needed for a reaction.
What do enzymes do in our bodies? They speed up chemical reactions that take place in cells by lowering activation energy
What is an enzyme? A protein that acts as biological catalysts
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